Senin, 22 September 2008



Sulawesi Utara



* Sam Ratulangi * The Fall of Menado, January 1942 * Historical Timeline of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples, by Josiah C. Ang * Historical Timeline of the Minahasa of North Celebes, by Jessy Wenas & Ron Puyundatu

Sam Ratulangi

Sam Ratulangi: National Independence HeroSam Ratulangi is considered to be the most well-known Minahasan hero. The airport, and main street in Manado are named after him. He was born in Tondano on November 5, 1890. Starting his education in Tondano, he would eventually study abroad, and receive a doctorate degree from a school in Switzerland.

Sam Ratulangi devoted his life to advance the quality life of Indonesians during Dutch rule. He was part of the committee to prepare for the independence of Indonesia, and after the independence he was given the position of the governor of Sulawesi.

Sam Ratulangi died on June 30, 1949, and was buried in Tondano. A memorial was built in the outskirts of Tondano for him. This memorial overlooks the site of the Institute of Teacher Education in Tondano.

The following is a translation of a page at the National Information Center of the Information Department of the Republic of Indonesia web site about Sam Ratulangi:

Dr. G. S. S. Y. Ratulangi (1890 - 1949)

National Independence Hero

By the order of the President of the Republic of Indonesia
No. 590/Year 1961, dated November 9, 1961

Sam Ratulangi: National Independence HeroWhile working at the department of locomotive development in South Priangan, Sam Ratulangi experienced unjust treatment from the government of Holland. He received work compensation that was lower than workers who were Dutch, eventhough he had the same position and education as they did. Such treatment fostered Sam Ratulangi's nationalism. He was determined to add to his education, to be more than the Dutch. His knowledge and education was eventually contributed for the advancement of his country.

Gerungan Saul Samuel Yacob Ratulangi, who is more popularly known as Sam Ratulangi, was born on November 5, 1890 in Tondano, North Sulawesi. After finishing Hoofden School (king's school) in Tondano, he continued his studies at a Technical School (KWS) in Jakarta. In 1915, he received a diploma as a teacher of science in middle school from Holland, and four years later he received a doctor of science degree from a school in Switzerland. In Holland he was head of Indonesian Association, and in Switzerland he was head of an organization of Asian students.

Sam Ratulangi: National Independence HeroAfter returning from Europe, Sam Ratulangi taught science at AMS (high school level school) in Yogyakarta, and eventually moved to Bandung to start the Indonesian Insurance Firm. For three years, from 1924 to 1927, he was appointed as secretary of Council of Minahasan Students. He used position for the welfare of the people by starting new areas for agricultural use, starting a foundation for educational funds, etc. Because of his fierce effort, the government of Holland abolished forced labor in Minahasa.

As a member of Volksraad in 1927, Ratulangi demanded that the goverment of Holland abolish differences of treatment in the political, economic, and educational fields between the Dutch and Indonesian. In 1932, he took part in the estalblishment of Vereniging van Indonesische Academici (The United Scholars of Indonesia). This organization was aimed to bring together the scholars of Indonesia to bring about a feeling of nationalism among the people of Indonesia.

In early August of 1945, Ratulangi was appointed as a member the Preparatory Committee on Indonesian Independence. After the Republic of Indonesia was established, he was appointed to the position of govenor of Sulawesi. He was arrested by the Dutch and exiled to Serui, Irian Jaya, after the United Nations struggled to keep Sulawesi as part the Republic of Indonesia.

Sam Ratulangi: National Independence HeroOn June 30, 1949, Sam Ratulangi died in Jakarta as a enemy prisoner. His body was buried back in Tondano.

Related Links

The Fall of Menado, January 1942

The city of Menado is situated at the Minahassa Peninsula in the north of Celebes Island and it is today an important trade harbor in Indonesia.

The fall of Menado, January 1942

Dutch Defence Forces at Menado, January 1942

The Menado garrison ["Troepencommando Menado"] numbered approximately 1,500 men and officers;
- The commanding officer (Major B.F.A. Schilmöller) and his staff
- Compagnie Menado; a native unit 188 men strong. This company was reinforced with a Vickers machine-gun section and was commanded by Captain W.F.J. Kroon.
- Mobiele Colonne; this mobile unit had about 45 men and was commanded by Sergeant-Major A.J. ter Voert. It was intended to be used against Japanese paratroopers and had three so called "overvalwagens" (armoured cars equipped with Madsen light machine-guns) available.
- Reserve Korps Oud Militairen (RK); this unit was made up from retired KNIL personnel with an average age of over 50 and was commanded by Captain W.C. van den Berg. It had 5 companies:
• A Company (8 brigades) commanded by 1st Lieutenant A.O. Radema
• B Company (8 brigades) commanded by 1st Lieutenant W.G. van de Laar
• C Company (8 brigades) commanded by 1st Lieutenant H. Fucher
• D Company (8 brigades) commanded by 1st Lieutenant J.G. Wielinga
• E Company (3 brigades) commanded by Sergeant Maliëzer
- Kort Verband Compagnie (KV) of nine brigades under the command of Captain J.D.W.T. Abbink.
- Europese Militie en Landstorm Compagnie (European Militia); about 200 men strong but poorly trained. Commanded by 1st Lieutenant F. Masselink.
- Menadonese Militie Compagnie (Native Militia); about 400 native troops under the command of Captain J.H.A.L.C. de Swert.
- Stadswacht (Home Guard); about 100 men strong and commanded by 1st Lieutenant M.A. Nolthenius de Man. This company did not even have the standard M95 rifles but was armed with old hunting rifles instead.
- Two or three sections Vickers machine-guns; one section was attached to the Compagnie Menado, the other 7 machine-guns were used to defend the airfield.
- Two artillery guns (7.5cm Lang 35 Model 1902); very obsolete field-artillery pieces. Their crews were made up from retired KNIL soldiers.
- Three very old 3.7cm naval guns; placed on trucks, they were used to defend Lake Tondano. They only had an effective range of about 1.000 meters.

With these very limited forces Major Schillmöller had to defend the airfields at Langoan (Menado II) and at Mapanget (Menado I), the naval base at Tasoeka and Menado. If the enemy forces were too strong, he was instructed to regroup his units inland and start a guerrilla war.

Japanese Attacking Forces at Menado, January 1942

- Sasebo Combined Landing Force; this unit from the Imperial Japanese Navy was about 2,500 men strong and under the command of IJN Captain Kunizo Mori. It had two reinforced battalions and support units (engineers, medics etc.). The first battalion was commanded by Major Masanari Shiga and the second battalion by Major Uroku Hashimoto. The Sasebo Combined Landing Force also had a light tank company (equipped with the Model 95 tank) attached to it. It left Davao on January 9th and during the early morning of January 11th landed at two places, at 03:00 at Kema and at 04:00 at Menado.

- 1st Yokosuka Special Landing Force; this parachutist unit from the Imperial Japanese Navy used 519 of its paratroopers to attack Langoan airfield. Its commander was IJN Commander Toyoaki Horiuchi. The 26 transport aircraft from Davao dropped the first 334 troops on January 11th. The next day a further 185 paratroopers were dropped at Langoan.

IJN Commander Toyoaki Horiuchi

IJN Commander Toyoaki Horiuchi

The Japanese Landing at Menado, January 1942

Major Schilmöller had used his strongest company, the Menado Compagnie, to defend the coast line of Menado Bay. It had the two 7.5cm guns attached to it (one of them was out of action) but these 188 troops had to defend a 2.5 KM wide sector. The Menado Compagnie had its left-flank protected by a small unit (35 men) from the Militia and Landstorm under the command of Lieutenant F. Masselink. The commanding officer of the Menado Compagnie, Captain Kroon, was instructed to fall back to the Tinoör-stronghold, situated some five miles inland, if he was in danger of being cut off by the enemy.

The Japanese landed almost unopposed. Shortly after he heard about the Japanese landings, Captain Kroon came to the conclusion that the situation was hopeless and he ordered his troops to withdraw towards Tinoör. He forgot however to warn Masselink's section and the crew of the 7.5cm gun. The crew of this gun managed to fire a few rounds at the landing enemy but was quickly put out of action. Masselink's section also engaged the landing enemy. He recalls: » I fired at the landing Japanese, realising that I forgot to gave my men the order to open fire. When I finally did so, we forced the enemy to take cover. Then they opened up on us with automatic weapons from a very short distance. ».

Wanting to cover the withdrawing Compagnie Menado, Masselink gave his men the order to fall back towards the Menado-Tomohon road. Here he engaged the enemy again. During this fire-fight, Masselink could clearly hear wounded Japanese soldiers screaming for help. He continued: » While we held our ground, eight trucks passed us and drove towards Tomohon. We kept firing till the last truck was out of sight and then, assuming that we had completed our task, I gave my men the order to withdraw to Tinoör. ».

The Compagnie Menado failed its task completely. When Captain Kroon reached Pineleng, halfway between Menado and Tinoör, he saw that Japanese troops already had occupied this town. Having already lost control of most of his troops, due to poor communication, he gave up the idea to defend the Tinoör-line and went with what was left of his company to Koha instead. Only five brigades of B Company (RK), under the command of Lieutenant van de Laar, were left now to defend Tinoör, but they were reinforced by Masselink's group who managed to reach the line at 07:00. At 10:30 four Japanese tanks appeared, three of them being put out of action by concentrated machinegun fire and a large tree, brought down by the KNIL troops on top of the tanks. The fighting at Tinoör lasted until 15:00 hours when the KNIL troops ran out of ammunition and had to retreat towards Kakaskasen, where they engaged the Japanese again. The 1st Lieutenant W.G. van de Laar wrote about his men: » These old warriors kept their high moral, though they never witnessed a modern battle before and knew fully well that they didn't stand a chance against this formidable enemy. Without ever receiving orders from our commanding officer, we engaged the enemy time after time again. ».

The Japanese Landing at Kema, January 1942

Lieutenant Radema's A Company (RK) was responsible for the defence of Kema. He had two of his brigades placed along the coast line and one at his CP at Ajermadidih, where some sort of defensive position was created with a few pill-boxes. The rest of the company had to defend Mapanget airfield, Likoepang and Bitoeng.

The landings at Kema started at 0300 on 11 January 1942 and were made swiftly. The Japanese transport ships quickly left the area. When Radema heard about the Japanese landing he immediately ordered his troops to regroup at Ajermadidih. When the first Japanese troops, including three tanks, reached Ajermadidih at 09:00, only few of them had actually managed to do so. With the few troops available, Radema tried to stop the Japanese advance. Corporal Pinon Toan, one of the defenders, wrote: » The fighting seemed to last forever. We must have hit a lot of them but they outnumbered us completely and kept on coming. When they reached our position we were ordered by Sergeant Wantania to withdraw. During our retreat we were covered by Sergeant Roemambi and the Privates Iniray and Poesoeng. They kept on firing until their pill-box was destroyed by one of the Japanese tanks. None of them survived but they probably saved our lives. ».

When Radema had to abandon his position at Ajermadidih, he intended to regroup his troops and start a guerrilla war. Due to the fact that many of his native troops deserted, he had to give up this plan.

The Japanese Airborne Operation at Langoan, January 1942

The defence of Lake Tonadano and the airfield at Longoan fell under the responsibility of the so called Tactical Command Kakas. The commanding officer was Captain W.C. van den Berg. The airfield itself was defended by 41 brigades under the command of 1st Lieutenant J.G. Wielinga. This unit was reinforced with one of the overvalwagens. Wielinga had his CP at the kampong Langoan, where he held 11 brigades back in reserve. The rest of his troops and the overvalwagen were placed at the airfield. Sergeant-Major H.J. Robbemond was in command.

Japanese paratroopers jumping from their planes, Menado, January 1942
Japanese paratroopers carefully advancing through the streets of Menado, January 1942

Japanese paratroopers jumping from their planes.
Photo was taken at Menado, January 1942.

Japanese paratroopers carefully advancing through the streets of Menado. Photo was taken at Menado, January 1942.

Shortly after 09:00 hours 334 Japanese paratroopers were dropped on and around the airfield. They suffered heavy casualties; according to Japanese sources the commanding officer (Captain Someja), two lieutenants, two NCO's and 30 troops were killed during this action. A further 90 paratroopers were wounded.

Captain van den Berg ordered the two remaining Overvalwagens (under Sergeant-Major Ter Voert) to attack the airfield. The first Overvalwagen (Sergeant Bojoh) managed to reach the airfield but the second (Ter Voert) had its engin shot to pieces and was left immobile. The native soldiers Tauran and Toemoedi kept on firing their machine guns, giving the rest of the crew the opportunity to escape. Though wounded both soldiers managed to escape towards Kakas but Toemoedi was later executed by the Japanese.

Japanese paratroopers recovering their weapons from equipment containers, Menado, January 1942
Japanese paratroopers over Menado, 1942

The Japanese paratroopers recovering their weapons from
equipment containers. The photo was taken at Menado, January 1942.

Japanese paratroopers over Menado, January 1942

Enraged by the heavy losses, the Japanese executed a large number of KNIL POW's. Shortly after the capture of Langoan airfield the D' Company Commander 1st Lieutenant J. Wielinga, Sergeant-Major Robbemond, foerier B. Visscher and nine native soldiers were bayonetted or beheaded. Two more native soldiers died in captivity after they were tortured.

Knowing that the battle was lost, van den Berg ordered his remaining troops to retreat inland and start a guerrilla.

The Guerilla War, February 1942

On several places the remaining KNIL forces tried to start a guerrilla against the Japanese invaders. Captain Kroon assembled what was left of the Menado Compagnie (about 50 men) and retreated towards Kembes, hoping to start an active guerrilla from this place. Due to regular desertions by his native soldiers he reached Kembes with only nine men left. Here the group was taken prisoner by the Japanese. All European members, except Kroon himself, were executed at Langoan on January 26th. (Sergeant-Major J.H. Kersten, Sergeant-Major G. Bottinga, Sergeant J.W. Meijer, Sergeant G.H.J. Wissink, Private G.H. Couzijn and Private H.J.A. Rolff).

Sergeant Maliëzer from E-Company did not want to surrender and started a guerrilla with fifteen of his men. On February 8th they attacked a Japanese unit at Kanejan. The fighting lasted the whole day and the Japanese counter-attack failed. Outraged they burned the nearby Kampong and executed five civilians (including two women). On February 12th they came back with a larger force and this time captured Maliëzers group. Maliëzer too was executed at Langoan with twelve of his men. Also executed on this day was another woman, Mrs. Hofman, who took part in the guerrilla because the Japanese had executed her husband, a former knight of the Militaire Willemsorde.

Captain van den Berg's and his group were taken prisoner on February 20th. His group, made up out of pensioners, attacked the Japanese units on several occasions and inflicted heavy casualties. Out of respect for the high average age and fighting spirit, the Japanese commander spared their lives.

Order of battle for Dutch and Japanese Army

Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (KNIL Army)

Local Command "Menado", commander was KNIL Major B.F.A. Schilmöller.
• RK Battalion in Menado with four infantry companies
• RK Depot
• MG Detachment (two sections of machine guns with 2 Madsen light machine guns each)
• Artillery Detachment (2 x 75mm L/35 guns)
• AT Truck Borne Detachment (3 naval 37mm guns)
• KNIL Infantry Company in Menado numbering approximately 50 men. This company was actualy comprised of 3 brigades, which was the standard formation of the pre-1940/1941 KNIL Army. Each ''brigade'' was an independent formation and usually had 15-18 men apiece. They operated independent in the field but if necessary multiple brigades could/would be grouped together to form a larger unit. This formation was equipped with 3 armored cars and one armored lorry and was response against Japanese paratroopers. This formation was equipped with Squad Automatic Weapons (SAW), which was the Danish Madsen light machine gun.
• KV Infantry Company in Menado
• Infantry Company of European Militie and Landstorm, comprised from approximately 100 Europeans. They were poorly armed and poorly trained and had no automatic weapons.
• Infantry Company of Menadoan Militie
Stadswacht Infantry Company
• Mobile Column with 3 independent squads and 3 armoured cars and one "armoured" lorry
plus various auxiliary formations from the KNIL's Artillery, Engineers, Transport, Military Police and AA branches.

Note A ''Short Term'' Company with some 135 men who had three years or less of active duty. It consisted of 9 brigades, each with approximately 15 men. It had no SAW or automatic weapons.

Note The ''Reservekorps Oud Militairen'' (RK) consisted of a unit staff and 5 companies (Company A', Company B', Company C' , Company D' and Company E' of retired KNIL personnel who had been recalled to active duty. Companies A', B', C' and D' each had 8 brigades of approximately 15 men each, while Company E' had 3 brigades of 15 men each. Only Company B' had SAW. Total personnel numbered about 525 men.

Note "Kort Verband" (KV) - short term volunteers.

Note There are two postwar battle reports in the files at the SMG. That is the Sectie Militaire Geschiedenis in Den Haag. One report deals with the fighting at the airfield and one deals with the fighting at the roadblock near Menado. The first report states that there was one car at the airfield and that car was captured by the Japanese. The other two cars were on patrol outside the airfield and these cars were involved in the counter attack. The other report tells the story of the fighting at the roadblock in which it cleary speaks of the assistance of an overvalwagen. This meant that the reported total number of cars became 4. There is a memorandum of early 1941 in which the Dutch general staff informes the allies on the defensive measures that are taken in the outer regions (buitengewesten) which claims that 3 overvalwagens are stationed at Menado. Therefore there was always a discussion if the battlereports were correct as they were compiled from memory after the war. There exist a photo of the vehicles at the vehicle maintenance depot at Menado and it shows 3 overvalvalwagens and an, at this moment, unidentified armoured lorry. So that photo solves the whole matter as there were 3 overvalwagens and one armoured lorry of which I haven't decided if it qualifies in a strict definition of the term overvalwagen but must be easely regarded as an overvalwagen. In those days one wasn't that strict in vehicle dessignation - Henry Klom, 11 December 1999.

Militaire Luchtvaart, KNIL (Air Force)
At that time there were no Dutch planes at Menado I and Menado II airfields.

Zeemacht Nederlands-Indië (Royal Dutch Navy)
Dutch Naval Commander in Menado was the militarized harbour master which was killed during Japanese attack. The Royal Dutch Navy had no warships in Menado harbor in December 1941.

Imperial Japanese Special Naval Landing Force
• Yokosuka 1st Special Naval Landing Force (a naval parachute unit). It had 2 parachute companies with 324 men. This unit was under command of Navy Commander Toyoaki Horiuchi.
• Sasebo Combined Special Naval Landing Force was under command of Navy Captain Kunizo Mori.

Teikoku Kaigun (Imperial Japanese Navy)
The Eastern Force came under the command of Vice-Admiral Ibo Takahashi and was intended for the landings at Menado, Kendari, Ambon, Makassar, Timor and Bali.
The 28 Japanese transport planes were carrying the Yokosuka 1st Special Naval Landing Force. Sea convoy to Menado numbered 8 transport ships and was carrying the Sasebo Combined Special Naval Landing Force.
Convoy escort was under command of Rear-Admiral Raizo Tanaka in light cruiser Jintsu (flagship) and convoy was escorted by
2nd Destroyer Flotilla
• 8th Destroyer Division (1st Group)
destroyers- Oshio, Asashio
• 15th Destroyer Division
destroyers- Natsushio, Kuroshio, Oyashio, Hayashio
• 16th Destroyer Division
destroyers- Yukikaze, Tokitsukaze, Hatsukaze, Amatsukaze
Air Group was under command of Rear-Admiral Ruitaro Fujita.
• 11th Seaplane Division
seplane tender Chitose
seaplane tender Mizuho
Patrol boat P 39
Base Force was under command of Rear-Admiral Kyuji Kubo.
1st Base Force
light cruiser Nagara (flagship)
Patrol boats- P 1, P 2, P 34
• 21st Minsweeper Division
minesweepers- W 7, W 8, W 9, W 11, W 12
• 1st Submarine-chaser Division
submarine chasers- Ch 1, Ch 2, Ch 3
Covering Force was under command of Rear-Admiral Takeo Takagi.
• 5th Cruiser Squadron
heavy cruisers- Nachi (flagship), Haguro, Myoko
• 6th Destroyer Division (2nd Group)
destroyers- Ikazuchi, Inazuma

Note The heavy cruiser Myoko was damaged during a bombardment of Davao City, Philippines on January 4th and had to return to Sasebo Naval Base for repairs. She left this port on February 20th and arrived at Makassar (Celebes Island) six days later.

Historical Timeline of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu
Including Related Events of Neighboring Peoples

By Josiah C. Ang, PM
Source: Jolo and Sulu

The seat of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu is in Astana Putih, Tausug for “White Palace,” located some two kilometers southwest of the Spanish Walled City of Jolo, in Umbul Duwa at the present municipality of Indanan in Jolo Island. Jolo is the capital town of the Province of Sulu that is within the present geographical jurisdiction of the Republic of the Philippines.


1450 AD - A Johore-born Arab adventurer, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bak=r, arrived in Sulu from Melaka; He married Param Isuli, daughter of Raja Baguinda, and founded The Royal Sultanate of Sulu in 1457; He declared himself H.R.H. Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bak=r, Sultan of Sulu, of the Saudi House of Hashemite in Hadramaut, where most Tausug and Yakan believed prophet Mohammad's genealogy is traced.

1451 AD - By this time, the Melakan Sultanate had become a leading center of Islam in southeast Asia, and as a time-tested protege of the Ming dynasty, Yung Lo sent away his daughter Hang Li-po and a cortege of five-hundred Mandarin ladies as A gift to Melakan Sultan Mansor Shah in 1459; in turn, Shah conceived "Bukit Cina" as a permanent residential court for his esteemed visitors.

H.R.H. Sultan Syed Hashem Abu Bak'r (1457-1480)

1470 AD - Muslim conquest of the Madjapahit Empire.

1473-1521 AD - Golden age rule of Nakhoda Ragam Sultan Bulkeiah=s Sultanate of Brunei that expanded her hegemony to include North Borneo, Sarawak, Indonesia Balabac, Banggi, and Palawan in Archipelago San Lazaro (present-day Philippines) and the new Royal Sultanate of Sulu

H.R.H. Sultan Kamal ud-Din (1480-1519)

1509 AD - A Bengali Putih and Diego Lopez deSequeira with a squadron of five Portuguese battle ships established the first White settlement in Melaka (Ferdinand Magellan was said to be a member of this expedition).

1511 AD - Portuguese privateer Alfonso deAlbuquerque captured Melaka from deSequeira and reported of Muslim trading vessels from Sulu anchored in that Malay port.

1512 AD - Unnamed Portuguese sailors effected a brief landing on Mindanaw.

H.R.H. Sultans Amir ul-Umara, Mu'izzul Mutawa Din & Nasir ud-Din (1519-1579)

1520 AD - Jesuit historian Francisco Combe reported of an unnamed Muslim Sharif who tried to spread Islam to Jolo but died at Bud Tumangtangis; His magnificent tomb was comparable to those in Makkah, but unfortunately in the years following, Manila Spaniards burned it to the ground.

1521 AD - Antonio Pigafetta deVicenza, the Italian chronicler of Ferdinand Magellan, was said to have visited Brunei Sultan Bulkeiah's court around this time; While crusing along the Bornean coast, fellow Spaniards captured Rajah Matanda of May Nilad, grandson of then reigning Brunei Sultan and nephew to Brunei Raja Muda (Rajah Suleiman to Filipinos). [Rajah Suleiman was himself a son-in-law of Brunei Sultan Abdul Kahar and this incident could have made unfortunate misgivings of his view of White men as he was to meet them again in the Battle of May Nilad in 1570].

March 16, 1521 AD - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, a.k.a. Fernao Magalhaes and Fernando de Magallanes, discovered Archipelago San Lazaro (present-day Samar Island) arriving on five vessels that included Trinidad (Magellan, skipper), San Antonio (Juan deCartagena), Concepcion (Gaspar deQuesada), Victoria (Luis deMondoza), and Santiago (Juan Serrano) and a total of two-hundred-sixty-four crew members.

- Magellan and his men then erected a wooden cross as testimony to their "discovery" of and claim for the Spanish Crown the Archipelago San Lazaro, named after this feast day of of Saint Lazarus (March 16).

March 18, 1521 AD - Magellan, including his wife's cousin Duarte Barbosa, cosmographer Andres de San Martin, and Pigafetta landed on an uninhabited island known as Homonhon where friendly natives from neighboring islands brought food and Atuba and together they feasted for one day.

March 24, 1521 - Moving southeast, Magellan weighed anchor for Masawa on Mindanaw Island where Masawa Rajah Kolambu was entertaining his visiting brother, Rajah Siagu of Butuan; The two Rajahs caused the first traditional blood compact of foreign visitors in which the visiting dignitary would drink each other's blood mixed with the native wine, Atuba.

- Mindanaw folklore mentioned a Pernao Magalhao to have founded this Manobo-tribeland where Rajah Siagu
was already ruling chief; Magalhao may have also Atouched at Sulu for we find Pigafetta describing the King of

April 06, 1521 - Magellan's ship-chaplain Pedro deValderrama celebrated the first Roman Catholic mass on Philippine soil at Masawa (some claims Limasawa in Leyte as the rightful place) which fortunately fell on Easter Sunday of Jubilation.

- Masawa Rajah Kolambu piloted Magellan to Cebu island where Cebu Rajah Humabon received them and
sealed yet another blood compact.

April 13,1521 - Cebu Rajah Humabon, his family, and 800 Sugboanons converted to Roman Catholicism before
Magellan and his party and immediately declared the "enemies of the church" the growing Muslimin community on Mactan island headed by Kaliph Pulaka (Lapu-Lapu to Filipinos).

April 27, 1521 - Magellan, with forty-eight men in full armor, ploughed ashore Mactan island but were stopped by poisoned arrows from men of Lapu-Lapu; The encounter is now known in Philippine history as the Battle of Mactan.

June 9, 1522 - Juan Sebastian del Cano, navigating Magellan=s only remaining vessel La Victoria with eighteen men and 533-hundredweight-cloves on board, successfully returned to Sevilla in Spain via the Tidorein Maluka (present-day Moluccas); Juan Sebastian del Cano was assigned in world history as the first man to have ever
completed the circumnavigation of the globe.

1523-1542 - Three other expeditions from Mexico attempted to reach the Philippines via the route taken by Magellan (Barbosa, de Loaisa, & de Saavedra) but never made it.

November 1, 1542 - Don Antonio de Mendoza, viceroy of Nueva Espana (present-day Mexico), sent six ships from Navida Mexico under Ruy Lopez deVillalobos that reached Sarangani islands in 1543 and named his "discovery" Las Islas Felipinas to honor the son of King Charles of Spain, Felipe II.

- deVillalobos sent for captain Bernardo delaTorre to survey the coast of Kota Bato but died there and his crew were captured in Sarangani by the Portuguese navy stationed in Maluka.

November 21, 1564 - Another Nueva Espana viceroy, Don Luis de Velasco, commissioned 54-year-old Basque adelantado Miguel Lopez deLegaspi, to subjugate Islas Felipinas after five unsuccessful attempts.

1565-1663 Fourth Stage of Moro Wars (Majul)

February 1565 - Legaspi arrived in Samar island on his flagship Capitana piloted by seasoned navigator-priest Andres Urdaneta who was earlier with the 1525 expedition of Fray Garcia Jofre deLoaiza [Crivelli].

April 1565 - Mooring southward to Bohol, Legaspi executed the traditional blood compact with Bohol Rajah Sikatuna and Rajah Sigala to show his sincerity of mission.

May 1565 - Legaspi effected the first Spanish settlement at Cebu with the aid of the two Bohol Rajahs after a brief combat with remnants of the Humabon-Lapulapu warriors that were later incorporated into his mercenary forces.

1568-1648 - The Spanish-Dutch War that started as an internal agitation within the Holy Roman Empire extended to the Far East for the control of the spice trade ending in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; This war despoiled Portugal of all its East India possessions and severely affected the tranquility of Moroland.

1569 - Brunei Sultan Saif ul-Raijal zealously campaigned for Quranic reading excellence among his other subjects in Sarawak, North Borneo, Palawan, and Sulu.

- Future Brunei Sultan Muhammad Hasan, whose firstborn, Rajah Bongsu Adapati of Sulu, became Sulu Sultan Mawallil Wasit, married the sister of Sultan Saiful-Raijal [Kho].

1570 - For lack of food supplies, Legaspi, who by now was appointed governor-general of the new Spanish colony, moved his seat to Capiz in Panay island; Hearing of good reports about May Nilad, with its excellent seaport and fertile boondocks, Legaspi sent for his grandson, Juan deSalcedo and forty-five able men to explore the area, unfortunately, accomplished little because of fierce resistance from forces loyal to Rajah Suleiman.

May 24, 1570 - Legaspi then sent marshall Martin Goiti, with seven-hundred Sugbuano mercenaries and 130 Spanish officers, to Lusong and stormed the May Nilad-fortress of Rajah Suleiman that left the Brunei Raja Muda with a disarrayed town, a hundred compatriots killed, and about eighty taken into captivity.

- Rajah Suleiman was at this time in Lusong to promote the Quranic reading program of Brunei Sultan Raijal; Three
other fellow Brunei royalties were in May Nilad as his adjutants that included Rajah Nicoy, Rajah Kanduli, and Rajah Lakandula, a direct descendant of Alexander the Great, legend says.

May 1571 - Legaspi himself led another invasion with twenty-seven vessels, two-hundred-eighty Spaniards and several hundred Visayan mercenaries.

June 3, 1571 - Rajah Suleiman fought fiercely but succumbed to the guns and cannons of Legaspi; Some three hundred warriors loyal to the Brunei Raja Muda perished.

- According to Nichol, Rajah Suleiman fled this bloody encounter and Brunei Annals confirmed a Raja Muda [no doubt Rajah Suleiman] to have died on this day in Brunei Darussalam after returning from a battle with the Spaniards.

June 24, 1571 - Legaspi founded May Nilad and ordered the Moro captives to built a Spanish-style walled city he called "Intra-Moros" along Ilog Pasig that became Spain=s first major structure in Asia.

August 21, 1572 - Legaspi died in this Intra-Moros walled-city which is now known as Intramuros.

1574 - According to Medina Historia, a Brunei fleet of one-hundred galleys and one-hundred Aparaws,@ manned by 8,000 warriors, attacked May Nilad to requite Rajah Suleiman=s death but in time left after an evidential Spanish reinforcement from Iloilo. [Nichol]

November 1574 - Chinese warlord Lin Tao Kien (Lim A-hong to Filipinos) attacked May Nilad but was forced by Spanish navy to retreat to Lingayen gulf where he finally settled and built his outpost at Sual.

- Jolo folklore reported of a ALimahong who set sail by the Sulu Sea, even weighing anchor at Tanjung, before this foiled attack on May Nilad.

March11, 1576 - Juan deSalcedo successfully explored the island of Lusong but died of fever at age twenty-seven.

1577 - Manila governor-general Francisco deSande sent a letter to Brunei Sultan Saif ul-Raijal to stop sending Muslim missionaries to southern Philippines.

- Brunei Annals reported of Manila Spaniards attacks on Brunei Darussalam who loosely controlled it for three years to even out Sultan Raijal's belligerent Islamic expansion to Sulu. []

H.R.H. Sultans Muhammed ul-Halim (Pangiran Budiman) (1558-1585)

June,1578 - deSande dispatched captain Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa, together with Jesuit priest Juan del Campo and Coadjutor Gaspar Gomez, to Jolo and, for the first time a European soul set foot on Sulu’s immortal soil; The visit was not long as a compromise negotiation was reached between deFigueroa’s invaders and the Tausug leaders that forced the Sulu Sultan-de-facto Mohammed ul-Halim Pangiran Buddiman to pay Sulu Sea pearls as regular tribute.

1579 - Because of this successful trip, Manila Spanish government gave deFigueroa the sole right to colonize
Mindanaw; another captain Juan Arce deSadornil conducted a brief but disastrous campaign against the Moros of North Borneo and Sulu.

December 1579 - Sir Francis Drake, tracing Magellan=s circum-navigational route westward, was careened on some islands north of Celebes Sea that cartographers believed were the Sulu archipelago group.

H.R.H. Sultan Batara Shah Tangah (Pangiran Tindig) (1585-1600)

1593 - The first permanent Catholic mission in the Moroland was established by the Jesuits in Samboangan (Sama
word for Sabuan, Adocking point) at Caldera bay (present-day Recodo).

1596 - Manila Spaniards made another war expedition to Jolo but was quashed by Rajah Bongsu, Adapati of Sulu (son of Brunei Sultan Muhammad Hassan from his Butuan wife). [Kho]

November 1596 - Manila Spanish government sent Juan Ronquillo to build fortified military garrison in Tampakan to thwart Moro raids but abandoned it the following year in order to reposition itself to Caldera bay in Zamboanga Peninsula.

1598 - Another war expedition trial was dispatched to Jolo, however, the Manila Spaniards experienced severe
drawback and returned to Manila leaving nothing to show for the visit.

H.R.H. Sultan Mawallil Wasit (Rajah Bongsu) (1600-1640)

1600 - Spanish captain Juan Gallinato raided Jolo with two-hundred men

- Panglima Abdullah of Talipao led an adventurous journey in seventy paraws that combed the southwestern coasts
from Balanguingue in Tawi-Tawi to Samboangan; Abdulla likewise attacked Christian Iloilo and burned and ransacked it.

December 31,1600 - Queen Elizabeth I of England granted the British East India Company trading privileges in Asia by virtue of Charter signed today; In 1609, King James I decreed to grant perpetuity to the Charter and, in 1688, King Charles II further granted sovereign right privileges that made repercussions in the 1878 Lease Agreement between the British East India Company and Sulu Sultan Kiram I.

1612 - Rajah Bongsu was installed sultan-de-facto of Sulu and named himself Sultan Mawallil Wasit; He appointed
Brunei Datu Acheh as his aide-de-camp because of his skills in helping unite the Sulu leaders. [Kho]

1627 - Datu Acheh, on official business in May Nilad for the Sultanate, was intercepted by Manila Spaniards on his
way home; In retaliation, Sultan Wasit led 2,000 Tausug warriors in raiding Spanish shipyards in Camarines south of May Nilad. [Ang mga Pilipino]

1628 - The Manila Spaniards returned the attack by organizing a raiding force of 200 Spanish officers and 1,600
Christian natives.

1629 - The Sultanate of Sulu sent anew another expedition under Datu Acheh to attack Spanish settlements in
Camarines, Samar, Leyte and Bohol.

March 17, 1630 - Spanish soldiers again attacked Jolo with 2,500 troops that saw the wounding of their commander Lorenzo de Olaso and retreated.

1631 - The Sulu warriors launched still another invasion, this time, targeted only on the Island of Leyte- the seat of
Spanish power in the Visayas.

1632 - Maguindanaw Sultan Kudarat married the daughter of Sulu Sultan Wasit that cemented a stronger Two-Sultanate-Alliance.

1634 - The Two-Sultanate-Alliance mobilized a 1,500-warrior-contingent and attacked Spanish-controlled settlements in Dapitan, Leyte and Bohol.

January 1635 - A Sulu Sultanate's captive named Fray Juan Batista Vilancio escaped Jolo and surfaced before Manila governor-general Don Juan Cerezo Salamanca who reported of a Moro power concentration in the Zamboanga peninsula by forces of the two Sultanates.

Aprill 6,1635 - Spanish captain Juan de Chaves was ordered to beachhead the south and established a military garrison in Samboangan, he named Bagumbayan, and became the forerunner of Ciudad de Zamboanga; This garrison in Samboangan led to the beginning of the defeat of Kudarat’s feared admiral, Datu Tagal, who had raided several pueblos in the Visayas.

June 23, 1635 - Salamanca next ordered a Jesuit-engineer-priest Melchor de Vera to lay a cornerstone for the construction of Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan (present-day Fort Pilar).

- After finishing his contract and on returning to Spain, he brought with him the impounded “Coat-of-Arms” of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu.

1636 - Datu Tagal, a brother of Kudarat, gathered a large fleet of Moro pirates from Mindanaw, Sulu, and North
Borneo and looted the coastal islands of the Visayas.

1637 - Manila governor-general Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera personally led an expedition against Kudarat and Tagal and triumphed over his forces at Lamitan and Lian.

January 4,1638 - deCorcuera again led a war expedition of eighty ships and 2,000 Spaniards to Jolo but was foiled by Sultan Wasit; however, due to an epidemic within his Acotta@ he and his datus were forced to seek refuge in Dungun Tawi-Tawi and the Spaniards freely occupied Jolo but again left in 1646 after a treaty of peace was signed between Malacanan and Sultan Nasir ud-Din. [Ang mga Pilipino sa Ating Kasaysayan]

1638-1640 - Records had it that Sulu Sultan Wasit=s many heroic battles during this period at Bud Datu in Jolo island against the Manila Spaniards were never lucidly recorded; It was Wasit who named this hill to honor the bravery and unconditional loyalty of his datus.

H.R.H. Sultan Nasir ud-Din (1640-1658)

1640 - In Pulangi Valley in Kota Bato, the lower valley (Si Ilud) controlled by Sultan Kudarat and the upper valley (Si Raya) controlled by Rajah Buhayen together with the turf of Rajah Buhisan around Lake Lanao (the Ranao Sultanates confederation) were merged to form the Sultanate of Maguindanaw

March 25,1644 - Sulu Sultan Wasit dispatched his son Pangiran Salikula to bombard Jolo and Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan with help from Dutch navy stationed in Batavia (present-day Indonesia) that droved deCorcuera

1645 - Wasit’s persistent raids wiped out the whole Spanish garrison in Jolo

April 14,1646 - The Manila Spanish government signed a peace treaty with Sulu Sultan-de-facto Nasir ud-Din recognizing, among others, his sovereign rights to extend up to the Tawi-Tawi Group as far as Tup-Tup and Balabac islands.

- A second batch of Jesuit priests were sent to Jolo during this period and start the permanent rooting of Roman Catholicism in Sulu [Sulu Zone, Kho]
1648 - The Treaty of Munster was signed between Spain and Netherlands to respect each other=s territories; Spain to
withdraw from Maluka and the Dutch from the Zamboanga Peninsula [Sulu Zone, Kho]
1649 - Under the direct command of Sultan Nasir the Spanish garrison in Jolo was finally exterminated

H.R.H. Sultan Salah ud-Din (Karamat Baktiar) (1658-1663)

June 1658 - Brunei Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin awarded Sulu Sultan-de-facto Salah ud-Din Bakhtiar the northeast coast of Borneo, including Palawan, for helping settle a civil war dispute against Pengeran Bongsu Muhyuddin

May 6,1662 - According to records, Manila governor-general Sabiniano Manrique de Lara issued an evacuation order for Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan and called all troops to reinforce May Nilad for an imminent attack by Chinese pirate Cheng Ch=eng-kung (Koxinga), but the truth of the matter was they were driven away by Sulu warriors during these previous years and allowing the forces of Kudarat to sequester it in 1663

- Friction between the ruling royalties of Brunei and Sulu led Camucones Badjaos to shift their loyalty to the Sultan of Sulu [Kho]

H.R.H. Sultans Sahab ud-Din & Mustafa Shafi’ ud-Din (1663-1704)

1663-1718 - According to historian C.A. Majul, this is a Period of Interrregnum in which Manila Spanish government abandoned all its settlement and pretensions in Mindanao and Sulu

1667 - Jesuit historian Francisco Combe wrote the first History of Mindanaw and Sulu covering the period from 1620 to1665

1673-1690 - The reign of Brunei Sultan Pengeran Bongsu Muhyuddin saw his hegemony breaking down that eventually phased out his Sultanate’s 150-year control of the Sulu and return royal powers back to the Sulu sultans

1699 - Melaka Sultan Mahmoud Shah was murdered in Kampar Sumatra ending the colorful Melaka Malay Sultanate

1701 - Sulu Sultan Mustafa Shaif ud-Din departed for a courtesy call to the new Sultanate of Maguindanaw in
sixty-eight “paraws,” but unfortunately, guardsman Kutai misinterpreted it as an invasion who forced closed the Rio Grande in Kota Bato and embarrassed the Sulu royalties; A long and fierceful fight ensued.

1703 - Sulu Sultan Shaif bestowed Palawan upon Mindanaw Sultan Kudarat but which same piece of land was ceded anew to the Manila Spanish government in 1705

H.R.H. Sultan Badar ud-Din I (1704-1734)

1717 - Sulu Sultan Badar ud-Din sent an emissary to Imperial China to enlist her support for military assistance; A
similar request was duplicated in 1733

1718-1772 Fifth Stage of Moro Wars (Majul)

1718 - Moro wars were resized when Manila governor-general Juan Antonio dela Torre Bustamante resolved to
reconstruct Real Fuerza de San Jose in Bagumbayan, and added to each corner sides citadels embossing the names of Catholic saints San Luis, San Francisco Xavier, San Felipe, and San Fernando

- The fort was renamed Real Fuerza del Pilar deZaragosa perpetuating the name of the Manila-Acapulco galleon ship that sunk off Guam early that year and also renamed Bagumbayan to Ciudad deZamboanga

1719 - Manila Spanish government dispatched a group of AChavacano-speaking@ Merdicans to Ciudad
deZamboanga (The Merdicans originally were brought in from Ternate and Tidore in the Celebes in 1663)

April 16,1719 - Don Fernando Bustillos Bustamante Rueda, senior maestro de campo in Ciudad deZamboanga, inaugurated Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa (better known as Fort Pilar to Jolo Christians and Moslems alike)

December 08, 1720 - Fort Pilar was stormed by Butig Rajah Dalasi with an armada of one hundred “paraws”; He captured a local Jesuit priest and forced Manila Spanish government to give ransom payment in exchange for his freedom

December 1720 - Sulu Sultan Badar directed Datu Bendahara and Datu Nakhuda to Batavia to renew an appeal for Dutch military assistance, and together with forces from the Sultanate of Maguindanaw, attacked Fort Pilar but was foiled

1721 - Manila governor-general Toribio Cosio sent Fray Antonio de Roxas to Ciudad deZamboanga to negotiate for the release of kidnapped Jesuit priest

December 11,1726 - Sulu Sultan Badar signed with Manila Spanish government another peace treaty which provisions were unclear

1731 - By decree of a Ming emperor, the remaining 300 survivors of Sulu East King Paduka Batara, now christened as Chinese Wen and Ang families, were assimilated into mainstream Chinese society that made perpetually alive a Tausug bloodline in that part of the world

- Manila governor-general F. Valdez y Timon sent Ignacio Iriberri to recapture Jolo with a regiment of 1,000-strong
Spanish soldiers

H.R.H. Sultan Nassar ud-Din (1734-1735)

December 6, 1734 - The 1726 peace treaty fell apart when the new Sulu Sultan Nasar ud-Din attempted to recapture Fort Pilar in Ciudad deZamboanga and to possess Taytay in Palawan.

1735 - Manila Spaniards struck back by invading Jolo that drove Sultan Nasar=s court to Dungun in Tawi-Tawi for the second time.

H.R.H. Sultan Mohammad Alim ud-Din I (Amir ul-Mumimin/King Ferdinand I) (1735-1748)

1735 - Sulu Annals remembered Sultan Alim I as one who had revised the Sulu Code of Laws and prepared a
Tausug-Arabic vocabulary manual for use by his Court=s religious imams and aleems.

February 1, 1737 - Sultan Alim I signed a bilateral alliance treaty with Manila governor-general F. Valdez y Tamon that provided for permanent peace in the region;

- King Philip V of Spain sent a delegation of Jesuit priests to Jolo to spread Roman Catholicism; Sultan Alim ud-Din
befriended these “haram” which which displeased his brother Bantilan, the Rajah Muda and seized powers from him

- Sultan Alim I sought the help of Ciudad deZamboanga governor Abando who in turn transferred him to the care of F. Valdez y Tamon in Manila

- Plant scientist M. de Tremegon, under the dictates of M. Poivre of the Isle of France, explored Jolo for spice plants.

H.R.H. Sultan Muiz ud-Din (Rajah Muda Bantilan) (1748-1763)

1748 - In the absence of Sultan Alim I, Rajah Muda Bantilan ascended the throne and named himself Sultan Muiz
ud-Din and abrogated the 1737 peace treaty.

1749 - Meanwhile in Malacanang, now under governor-general Arrechderra, exiled Sultan Alim I was made a Roman Catholic and conferred the Christian title of King Ferdinand I of Sulu.

- To cast away the shame put upon the Sulu Sultanate, Sultan Alim I’s daughter Fatima sought for his release in exchange for sixty Spaniards held prisoners in Jolo.

1750 - Sultan Muiz led roaring raids against the Spanish settlements in the whole of Visayas [Ang mga Pilipino].

- Brunei Sultan Omar Ali Saif ud-Dein similarly ordered attacks on Manila.

April 29,1750 - After being reinstated as Sultan by Malacanang, he was arrested on his way back to Jolo under the orders of governor-geneal Zacarias.

July 12,1751 - Sultan Alim ud-Din was returned to the care of the Zamboanga governor after fifteen years of exile in
Fort Santiago.

December 21,1751 - A furious Manila governor-general F. Valdez y Tamon issued a decree that ordered: (1) The extermination of all Moros with fire and sword; (2) The destruction of all their crops and desolate their lands; (3) Make Moro captives; (4) Recover Christian slaves; and (5) Exempt all Christians from payment of any taxes and tributes while engaged in the termination of these Moros.

1754 - Three Jesuit priests led by Fray Jose Ducos engaged themselves in an evangelistic mission to Jolo and established a Catholic congregation.

- For the first time Ajihad was exercised by the Sultan of Mindanaw upon the Maestro de Campo of Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Zamboanga for seizing his goods without due notice.

March 3,1754 - The Manila Spanish government signed another peace treaty with Sultan Muiz ud-Din.

1755 - A Manila Spanish contingent of 1,900 men led by captains Simeon Valdez and Pedro Gastambide was sent to Jolo to avenge for the raids carried out by self-proclaimed Sultan Muiz ud-Din.

1761 - Alexander Dalrymple, Madras representative of the British East India Company, concluded an agreement with self-proclaimed Sultan Muiz ud-Din that permitted him to set up a trading post in Balembangan island in Kudat North Borneo, a territory of the Sultanate of Sulu

H.R.H. Sultan Alim ud-Din (Amir ul-Mumimin) (1763-1773, 2nd Ascension)

1763 - Dalrymple maliciously renamed Balembangan island and hoisted the British flag to the ire of Sultan Muiz ud-Din

- Madras British East India Company sent another officer, John Herbert, to build a settlement in Balembangan but
which plan was abandoned in 1775

- British soldiers invaded and successfully captured May Nilad

- The British restored an exiled Sulu Sultan Alim ud-Din I to his throne in Jolo

- As gesture of gratitude, Sulu Sultan Alim ud-Din I leased his dominion in North Borneo to a British company for
exclusive trading privileges and signed a mutual defense pact with the British Crown that included the establishment of a military base in Sulu

1769 - Sultan Alim ud-Din I ordered the continuous foraging of Visayas and Luzon, even raiding Malate, just outside of Spanish Intramuros, and carried off thousands of captives to be sold in the slave markets of Batavia, Malaka, and Tamasek

1771 - Sultan Alim ud-Din declared a jihad against the Manila Spaniards for having unlawfully detained him on his
way home from May Nilad at Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Zamboanga

H.R.H. Sultan Isirail (1773-1778)

1775 - Datu Tating in twenty vessels with 4,000 pirates assaulted the British military base in Sulu and carted away booty amounting to US$1,000,000 including an enormous supply of war materials

H.R.H. Sultans Alim ud-Din II, Sarap ud-Din & Alim ud-Din III (1778-1808)

1796 - Spanish admiral Jose Alava was sent from Madrid with the most powerful naval fleet to combat Moro piratical attacks in the Sulu Sea

1798 - Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Ciudad deZamboanga was bombarded by the British navy coming from its military base in Sulu

1803 - Lord Arthur Wellesley, governor-general of India, ordered Robert J. Fraquhar to turn Balembangan island in
Borneo into a military station, however, for lack of logistics, abandoned it in November 1805

1805 - The British government withdrew her military base in Sulu

H.R.H. Sultans Ali ud-Din & Shakir ul-Lah (1808-1823)

1821 - ALas Islas Felipinas@ was now directly administered from Madrid after Mexico won her independence from Spain

H.R.H. Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I (1823-1844)

1824 - Spanish captain Alonso Morgado commanded frigate AMarina Sutil@ that fought the Moro pirates in the Sulu Sea

- The Manila Spanish treasury decreed that all Islas Felipinas provinces, excepting Mindanaw and Sulu, be required to pay ADonativo deZamboanga, an annual tax-payment of one ganta of rice or one half real

1831 - Ciudad de Zamboanga was declared a free port

1836 - American trader G.W. Earl sailed to Jolo to barter guns, powder, and rifles in exchange for Sulu’s tortoise shells and Palawan’s birds nests

February 5,1842 - American captain Charles Wilkes landed in Jolo and signed the first-ever US-documented peace & trade treaty with Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I

April 23,1843 - France signed a AMost-Favored Nation@ treaty with Sultan Jaml ul-Kiram I including negotiating to buy Basilan island for its commercial and naval base, however, the US$1Million asking price left the deal invalidate [Orosa, Kho]

H.R.H. Sultan Mohammad Pulalun (1844-1862)

1844 - Manila governor-general Narciso Claveria led another war expedition to Jolo

October1844 - Macao-based French admiral Cecille attempted to double-cross Sultan Pulalun and sent for captain Guerin on a frigate Sabine to reconnaissance Basilan. In their clumsiness, ensign Meynard and four other sailors were captured by the Yakans including one fatally killed. Embarrased, the French blockaded Basilan and blamed Datu Usak for depredations made against them

January 13, 1845 - Datu Usuk declared Atotal independence viz-a-viz Spain

Februrary 20,1845 - Sulu Sultan Pulalun ceded Basilan to France in exchange for 500,000 francs which was payable in September but the French navy under Cecille instead took it by force and attacked Basilan on February 27 and destroyed all its croplands that angered the Yakans.

June 30,1845 - The French cabinet approved the annexation of Basilan but was reversed by King Phillipe in deference of Spain whose House of Bourbons/Orleans his wife is a part of.

December 1, 1845 - English traveler William Edwards narrated in his Diary of Ahis tongue cut out of (my) mouth on my passage home from the coast of China, to Liverpool by Ilanun pirates who gathered slaves and sold them in Sumatra and Java . . .

Balani pirates, who were based in Jolo, attacked Spanish vessels using 60-seater-corocoro fitted with outriggers and powered by either sail or oar with displacements of 81 tones.

1846 - By winning the 1844 battle, the Sultan prized the Manila Spaniards the towns of Sibuguey and Bisungan in the Zamboanga Peninsula

1848 - Claveria ordered the attack on Balanni pirates in Tonguil Sulu with powerful gunboats Magallanes, El Cano, and Reina de Castilla acquired from Madrid and started the decline of the Sulu Sultanate sea power

November 21,1849 - Claveria issued CATALOGO ALFABETICO DE APELLIDOS and ordered its use and systematic distribution by native Filipinos throughout the colony but was never introduced to subjects of Sulu Sultanate

1850 - Spanish Gov.Gen. Juan Urbiztondo successfully completed the destruction of the pirate stronghold on Tongkil island

February 28, 1851 - Urbiztondo raided Jolo and destroyed the whole town by fire and confiscated 112 pieces of artillery

- Jesuits fathers Ibanez, Zamora, Sanchez, Lopez, and Montiel lost their lives during this fiery raid

April 19, 1851 - Sultan Mohammad Pulalun signed a treaty with the Spanish Crown that provided for the turning over of his sovereign rights although Saleeby noted that the words Aturning over its sovereignty was never mentioned in the Tausug version of the treaty

April 30, 1851 - As a consequence of the April 19, 1851 Treaty, Sultan Pulalun negotiated with Urbiztondo forSpain to pay US$1,500 annually to the Court of the Sulu Sultanate and abolish all sorts of taxes & tributes on his subjects

- In Manila, fray Roman Martines Vigil justified the Spanish raids in Jolo as Ajust wars@ which position he was able to raise 20 Million-pesos from Chinese capitalists to further these wars

1852 - Spanish Queen Isabella II ordered the Jesuits to take charge of all Catholic missions in Mindanaw and Sulu

1858 - Moro pirates attacked Real Fuerza del Pilar de Zaragosa in Zamboanga in the hope of possessing the fort

1860 - The Donativo deZamboanga was abolished

- Manila Spanish government closed Jolo to foreign vessels and guarded its port with eighteen steam boats in an attempt to control piracy in Sulu.

- Balanni and Ilanun pirates were destroyed by a joint Spanish-British naval forces patrolling the Sulu-China-Celebes Seas triangle

1862 - Gallant Catholic Jesuits opened missions in Tetuan (Zamboanga) and Isabela (Basilan) to supplement Spanish conquests with military might

H.R.H. Sultan Jamal ul-Alam (1863-1881)

1864 - A German sea captain employed by the Labuan German Trading Company named Herman Leopold Schuck
called on the port of Jolo for provisions and to repair sails of his barque, the Queen of the Seas; made a courtesy call on Sulu Sultan Jamal ul-Alam and promised to supply M-71 Mauser infantry rifles, opium, and slaves.

1865 - North Borneo American consul Claude Lee Moses obtained a 10-year-lease on North Borneo from Sultan
Jamal ul-Alam, however, Moses sold his rights to a British-registered American Trading Company owned by J.W. Torrey, T.B. Harris, et. al. This American company in turn sold the same to the Austrian consul in Hongkong, Baron von Overbeck, for whom he contracted the Dent Brothers, through Alfred Dent, to finance its expansion plans.

1872 - Schuck sent a letter of Sultan Jamal ul-Alam to German chancellor Otto von Bismarch, together with gifts of
pearls and pearl shells, seeking Germany’s protection. In exchange, the Sultanate was willing to cede Bongao to Germany as a coaling station for her Far East Imperial Fleet.

- Cabesang Benito with sixty-seven other inmates bolted Fort Pilar in Ciudad deZamboanga killing one Spanish officer and four sentinels that frustrated Zamboanga governor Juan Mas Ozaeta.

- Iranun corsair Alejo Alvarez of Sibuguey, together with Spanish colonel Melanio Enriquez, were engaged by governor Ozaeta to clear Fort Pilar

- Manila Spanish government awarded Ciudad de Zamboanga the royal title of ALeal y Valiente Villa@ for clearing Fort Pilar and made a son of Alejo Alvarez, Vicente, a deputy in Malacanang.

- Vicente Alvarez subsequently became a peace negotiator for Malacanang with the Sulu Sultanate in whose ability Sultan Jamal ul-Alam was also please and bestoed in him the title of Datu Tumanggung; Alvarez later joined the army of Philippine Insurrection leader Emilio Aguinaldo and became a general.

January 1, 1874 - The Charter of the British East India Company was canceled and the company dissolved when the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect.

Februayr 21, 1876 - Admiral Jose Malcampo led a contingent of 9,000 Spaniards, including hundreds of priests and nuns, in 11 transports, 11 gunboats, and 11 steam boats to Aannex@ Jolo but failed this mission when Sultan Jamal ul-Alam declared a jihad on them and ordered his loyal subjects to use Aparrang sabbil@as a last recourse to regain control of Jolo.

- Successful in temporarily penetrating Jolo, Malcampo then appointed Capt. Pascual Cervera to set up a garrison and serve as the first Spanish military governor; He served from March 1876 to December1876 followed by Brig.Gen. Jose Paulin (December 1876-April 1877) and Col Carlos Martinez (Sept 1877-Feb 1880).

1877 - Brunei Annals recorded Sultan Abdul Momin to have signed a treaty leasing North Borneo to the British Crown which was inconsistent with Sulu history that a similar act was also concluded on January 22, 1878

March.1877 - The Sulu Protocol was signed between Spain, England, and Germany that recognized Spain=s rights over Sulu and, in consideration for the said lease of North Borneo, ended European hostilities in the area

1878 - Manila Spaniards built the Walled City of Jolo which was fortified by two outer forts they named Picesa de
Asturias and Torre dela Reina including three inner forts called Puerta Blockaus, Puerta Espana, and Puerta Alfonso XII; Also included were lancerias which were guarded by twelve Spanish soldiers commanded by a lieutenant

January 22,1878 - In exchange for US$5,000, Sultan Jamal ul-Alam leased North Borneo to the Hong Kong-based British trading company of Baron Gustavos von Overbeck and Alfred Dent and conferred upon Overbeck the title Datu Bendahara, Raja of Sandakan [K.B. Tregoning, A History of Modern Sabah/Agoncillo history of the Filipino People]

July 22, 1878 - Sultan Jamal ul-Alam signed a treaty with the Spanish Crown making whole of Sulu a protectorate of Spain yet retained her autonomy and the privilege to fly own flag thus saved Jolo from further destruction. [Majul Muslim in the Philipppines/Kho]

- Sultan Jamal ul-Alam moved the seat of the Sultanate to Darul Maimbung

1880 - Spanish Col. Rafael Gonzales deRivera assumed the governorship of Jolo and dispatched the 6th Regiment to Siasi and Bongao islands

H.R.H. Sultan Badar ud-Din II (1881-1886)

1881 - An accomplished negotiator, pacifist, and master of Arabic language and the Koran, Hajji Butu Abdulbaqui
Rasul was appointed the first and only prime minister of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu

November 1, 1881 - The British Crown awarded Alfred Dent a provisional Charter to form the British North Borneo Provisional Association, Ltd.

- Brunei Sultan Abdul Momin awarded Sarawak to an English adventurer named Sir Charles Brooke who later became known as the White Rajah

1882 - The holdings, assets, and Royal Charter of the BNB Provisional Association, Ltd. were bequeathed and
transferred to the British North Borneo Chartered Company with Sir Rutherford Alcock serving as first president and Alfred Dent as managing director; BNBCC served the British Crown for sixty years until 1945 when the latter finally took over

1883 - Manila Spanish government established a customs house in Ciudad de Zamboanga to clear goods coming into the Sultanate of Sulu but, on the insistence of the British, Jolo was declared a free port and trade continued

July 22, 1883 - Sulu Annals reported three unnamed A juramentado who succeeded in penetrating Jolo town plaza and massacred Lts. Pedro Bordas and Caledonio Manrique, and Dr. Juan Dominguez in the name of Allah; The word Ajuramentado was coined by Spanish colonel Juan Arolas after witnessing several such acts while serving duty in Jolo garrison.

1884 - Sultan Badar ud-Din II built Masjid Jammi Tulay Mosque in Jolo.

1886 - The Crown of the Sultanate was disputed between Rajah Muda Amir ul-Kiram of Maimbung and Datu Ali
ud-Din of Patikul but the Spanish Manila government involved herself in the power struggle and chose Palawan Datu Harun al-Rashid as its candidate.

H.R.H. Sultan Harun al-Rashid (1886-1893)

September 24, 1886 - Datu Harun al-Rashid was crowned Sultan of Sulu by the Manila governor-general Juan Terrero in a Christian investiture in Malacanang

1887 - Terrero paid a courtesy call on Sulu Sultan al-Rashid in Jolo

April 16, 1887 - Immediately after said visit, spanish colonel Juan Arolas was instructed to capture Darul Maimbung, seat of the Sulu Sultanate, for the Spanish Crown

1888 - Brunei Sultan brought the rump of his territories under the British Crown; North Borneo became a British
Protectorate; Brunei became a British protected state.

H.R.H. Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I (Amir ul-Kiram/King Jubilado dePalawan) (1893-1936)

1893 - Sultan Harun al-Rashid abdicated his throne to cousin Rajah Muda Amir ul -Kiram for his failure to save Darul Maimbung that placed the Manila Spanish government plans in shambles

- Rajah Muda Amir ul-Kiram transferred the seat of the Sultanate to Palawan and briefly named himself King Jubilado de Palawan (he was to be known later as Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I)

- Fray Jose Cavelleria sailed round the island of Basilan whose revered ruler was King Taguima, a cousin of
Mindanaw Sultan Kudarat

December 30, 1896 - La Liga Filipina founder Dr. Jose P. Rizal was executed by the Spaniards at Bagumbayan in Manila

September 21, 1897 - Around 1:17pm an earthquake hit the Sulu Sea about the area of Zamboanga and Basilan that was as destructive as the Krakatoa quake

- During its final calm, a woman in white clothes with hands lifted up, was allegedly seen by thousands of spectators in Ciudad de Zamboanga by the Basilan Strait as if to order the impendent Atsunami@ to halt; This action, according to legend, saved Ciudad de Zamboanga from full-size destruction and made this lady a revered saint of Fort Pilar

February 25, 1898 - Commodore George Dewey, commander of the U.S. Asiatic Squadron, received a secret cable from Navy assistant secretary Theodore Roosevelt to proceed to Manila

April 22, 1898 - U.S. president William McKinley signed the Volunteer Army Act that activated the First Volunteer Cavalry (the “Rough Riders”), and appointed Theodore Roosevelt, a lieutenant-colonel, its first commander

April 23, 1898 - Manila governor-general Basilio Augustin y Davila issued a proclamation announcing the defeat of Spain in the Battle of San Juan and the approach of commodore Dewey from Hongkong

May 1, 1898 - Dewey secured Manila after the defeat of Spanish Admiral Patricio Montojo y Parasan at the Battle of Manila Bay; This feat led the U.S. Congress to promote Dewey to Rear Admiral on May 10, 1898 and again to Navy Admiral on March 13, 1899

June 12, 1898 - Filipino Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit Cavite with U.S. army artillery commander Col. L.M. Johnson as the only American official to witness the occasion.

June 23, 1898 - Aguinaldo declared a Revolutionary Congress in Malolos Bulacan

June 30, 1898 - Arrival in Cavite of the first installment of 2,500 U.S. Volunteer Cavalry troops under Gen. Thomas M. Anderson that included the 14th infantry, 1st California, and 2nd Oregon; Also with the troops were military hardware of 400-ton-ammunition for Dewey=s three ships (City of Peking, City of Sydney, and Australia)

July 25, 1898 - Arrival of Gen. Wesley Merritt to assume overall command of the U.S. expeditionary forces in the

August 14, 1898 - Occupation of Manila by U.S. forces under Merritt

August 22, 1898 - Gen. Elwell Otis replaced Merritt as overall commander of U.S. expeditionary forces in the Philippines

October 26, 1898 - U.S. president McKinley instructed the his peace commission to annex the Philippine Islands after conferring with Presbyterian advisers

November 21, 1898 - U.S. peace commissioners presented an ultimatum to the Spanish Crown for the signing the Treaty of Paris

- During negotiations, U.S. State Secretary William R Day, “recommended a payment of $25million taking into account the defeated adversary's bankruptcy and loss of colonial revenues . . . if necessary was prepared to leave Mindanao and Sulu to Spain,” while Whitelaw Ried on the other hand, “wanted to take all the Philippines, basing his policy on the principle of indemnity. If compromise becomes necessary, he proposed to leave Mindanao and the Sulus to Spain in return for the Ladrones and the Carolines” (clear indicators that Sulu should have not been part of Spain's ceased territories)


December 10, 1898 - Treaty of Paris was signed in Washington DC between the United States and Spain

December 21, 1898 - McKinley issued a proclamation calling for a Philippine colonial policy of benevolent assimilation

December 31, 1898 - McKinley instructed his War Department to extend military governance to the entire Philippine Islands

Januart 4, 1899 - Otis issued a proclamation declaring the Philippines Islands under the sovereign and complete control of the United States of America

January 23, 1899 - Aguinaldo proclaimed the establishment of the First Philippine Republic at Malolos Bulacan and declared himself president

April 1899 - HRH Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I (may his soul rest in peace), the last and truly sovereign-reigning sultan of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu, died in his peace at his Astana Putih in Darul Maimbung, Lupah Sug, Bangsamoro.

[This Historical Time-line is envisioned to portray The Royal Sultanate of Sulu as a free, independent, and sovereign nation separated from Las Islas Felipinas that had been constantly attacked by Western colonists and subdued by various tactics that, between 1565 and 1898 alone, 333 years in all, only eleven assaults were successfully made from Fort Santiago in Manila by the Spanish Audiencia forces. These war expeditions exclude earlier attempts made by Buddhist Srivijaya, Hindu Madjapahit, and Chinese Ming Empires, and by the British, French, German, and Portuguese armies and navies. In all these long struggles, the Spanish Walled City of Jolo was the only part of the territory of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu that was taken and garrisoned by Spanish war freaks for about 31 years only compared with the Mabarakat Panghu Tausug of four-hundred-fifteen years.

This is the Bangsa Moro struggle, they ought to be free like the free peoples of the world! Wassalam.]


Bara, Hannibal. History of the Muslim in the Philippines, NCCA, 1999
Cabel, O.A. Local Governance and Public Administration: The Sulu Experience, 1990
Che Man, W.K. Muslim Separatism: The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand, Quezon City:
AdM U Press, 1990
Criveli, Camillus. Catholic Encyclopedia, XV, Robert Appleton Co, 1912
Gowing, P.G. Mandate in Moroland, American Government of Muslim Filipinos, 1899-1920
Gowing, P.G. and Robert McAmis. The Muslim Filipinos: Their History, Society, and Contemporary Problems, Manila: La
Solidaridad Publishing House, 1974.
Kho, Madge. Chronology of Moro Resistance
Majul, Cesar A. Muslim in the Philippines, Quezon City: UP Press, 1973
Montemayor, M.S. Saga of a German Sea Captain, Manila Bulletin, 08.30.2000
Orosa, Sixto Y. The Sulu Archipelago and Its People, NY: World Book Co., 1970
Saleeby, N. History of Sulu, Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1966
Tan, Samuel K. The Filipino Muslim Armed Struggle, 1900-1972, Makati: Filipinas Foundation, 1977
Tregoning, K.B. A History of Modern Sabah, 1881-1963
Hurley, Vic. Swish of the Kris, 1997

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Ron Puyundatu

" . . wo mei witu katare-tare se tou limepu' mei kulo se Tasikela kaapa Kastejla ungaran nera itii wo iai mo mei ya taawi uman se tou iai kataretare sera wi ti sana we kah amian se ni muli nuli mei menero se tou rimumer wanau punten maka liklik woan sera ma langou a londei nera witi wawa langouan ne Kima in tarekan iai winaror in Tasikela ungaran . . "


* Os Primeiros Mapas e Desenhos Portugueses da Indonesia. O Livro de Fransisco Rodrigues (1512-1514), Cepesa (Centro Portugues de Estudos do Sudeste Asiatico), 2000

Tona'as Dan Walian Abad Ke-7

By: Jessy Wenas

Pemimpin Minahasa jaman tempo dulu terdiri dari dua golongan yakni Walian dan Tona’as. Walian mempunyai asal kata “Wali” yang artinya mengantar jalan bersama dan memberi perlindungan. Golongan ini mengatur upacara agama asli Minahasa hingga disebut golongan Pendeta. Mereka ahli membaca tanta-tanda alam dan benda langit, menghitung posisi bulan dan matahari dengan patokan gunung, mengamati munculnya bintang-bintang tertentu seperti “Kateluan” (bintang tiga), “Tetepi” (Meteor) dan sebagainya untuk menentukan musim menanam. Menghafal urutan silsilah sampai puluhan generasi lalu, menghafal ceritera-ceritera dari leluhur-leluhur Minahasa yang terkenal dimasa lalu. Ahli kerajinan membuat pelaratan rumah tangga seperti menenun kain, mengayam tikar, keranjang, sendok kayu, gayung air.

Golongan kedua adalah golongan Tona’as yang mempunyai kata asal “Ta’as”. Kata ini diambil dari nama pohon kayu yang besar dan tumbuh lurus keatas dimana segala sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kayu-kayuan seperti hutan, rumah, senjata tombak, pedang dan panah, perahu. Selain itu golongan Tona’as ini juga menentukan di wilayah mana rumah-rumah itu dibangun untuk membentuk sebuah Wanua (Negeri) dan mereka juga yang menjaga keamanan negeri maupun urusan berperang.

Sebelum abad ke-7, masyarakat Minahasa berbentuk Matriargat (hukum ke-ibuan). Bentuk ini digambarkan bahwa golongan Walian wanita yang berkuasa untuk menjalankan pemerintahan “Makarua Siouw” (9x2) sama dengan Dewan 18 orang leluhur dari tiga Pakasa’an (Kesatuan Walak-Walak Purba).

Enam leluhur dari Tongkimbut (Tontemboan sekarang) adalah Ramubene, suaminya Mandei, Riwuatan Tinontong (penenun), suaminya Makaliwe berdiam di wilayah yang sekarang Mongondouw, Pinu’puran, suaminya Mangalu’un (Kalu’un sama dengan sembilan gadis penari), Rukul suaminya bernama Suawa berdiam di wilayah yang sekarang Gorontalo, Lawi Wene suaminya Manambe’an (dewa angin barat) Sambe’ang artinya larangan (posan). Maka Roya (penyanyi Mareindeng) suaminya bernama Manawa’ang.

Sedangkan enam leluhur yang berasal dari Tombulu adalah : Katiwi dengan suaminya Rumengan (gunung Mahawu), Katiambilingan dengan suaminya Pinontoan (Gunung Lokon), Winene’an dengan suaminya Manarangsang (Gunung Wawo), Taretinimbang dengan suaminya Makawalang (gunung Masarang), Wowriei dengan suaminya Tingkulengdengan (dewa pembuat rumah, dewa musik kolintang kayu) Pahizangen dengan suaminya Kumiwel ahli penyakit dari Sarangsong.

Sementara itu enam leluhur yang berasal dari Tontewo (wilayah timur Minahasa) terdiri dari Mangatupat dengan suaminya Manalea (dewa angin timur), Poriwuan bersuami Soputan (gunung Soputan), Mongindouan dengan suaminya Winawatan di wilayah Paniki, Inawatan dengan suaminya Kuambong (dewa anwan rendah atau kabut), Manambeka (sambeka sama dengan kayu bakar di pantai) dewa angin utara, istrinya tidak diketahui namanya kemudian istri Lolombulan. Pemimpin panglima perang pada jaman pemerintahan golongan Walian adalah anak lelaki Katiwei (istri Rumengan) bernama Totokai yang menikah dengan Warangkiran puteri dari Ambilingan (istri Pinontoan).

Pada abad ke-7 telah terjadi perubahan pemerintahan. Pada waktu itu di Minahasa – yang sebelumnya dipegang golongan Walian wanita - beralih ke pemerintahan golongan Tona’as Pria. Mulai dari sini masyarakat Matriargat Minahasa yang tadinya menurut hukum ke-Ibuan berubah menjadi masyarakat Patriargat (hukum ke-Bapaan)., Menjalankan pemerintahan “Makatelu pitu (3x7=21)" atau Dewan 21 orang leluhur pria.

Wakil-wakil dari tiga Pakasa’an Toungkimbut, Toumbulu, Tountowo, mereka adalah ; Kumokomba yang dilantik menjadi Muntu-Untu sebagai pemimpin oleh ketua dewan tua-tua “Potuosan” bernama Kopero dari Tumaratas. Mainalo dari Tounsea sebagai wakil, Siouw Kurur asal Pinaras sebagai penghubung dibantu Rumimbu’uk (Kema) dan Tumewang (Tondano) Marinoya kepala Walian, Mio-Ioh kepala pengadilan dibantu Tamatular (Tomohon) dan Tumilaar (Tounsea), Mamarimbing ahli meramal mendengar bunyi burung, Rumoyong Porong panglima angkatan laut di pulau Lembe, Pangerapan di Pulisan pelayaran perahu, Ponto Mandolang di Pulisan pengurus pelabuhan-pelabuhan, Sumendap di Pulisan pelayaran perahu, Roring Sepang di awaon Tompaso, pengurus upacara-upacara di batu Pinawetengan, Makara’u (Pinamorongan), Pana’aran (Tanawangko), Talumangkun (Kalabat), Makarawung (Amurang), REPI (Lahendong), Pangembatan (Lahendong).

Dalam buku “Toumbulusche Pantheon” tulisan J.G.F. Riedel tahun 1894 telah dikemukakan tentang sistem dewa-dewa Toumbulu yang ternyata mempunya sistem pemerintahan dewa-dewa seluruh Minahasa dengan jabatan yang ditangani leluhur tersebut. Pemerintahan golongan Tona’as abad ke-tujuh sudah punya satu pimpinan dengan gelar Muntu-Untu yang dijabat secara bergantian oleh ketiga sub-etnis utama Minahasa. Misalnya leluhur Ponto Mandolang mengatur pelabuhan Amurang, Wenang (Manado) Kema dan Bentenan dengan berkedudukan di Tanjung Pulisan. Tiap sub-etnis Minahasa mempunya panglima perangnya sendiri-sendiri tapi panglima perang tertinggi adalah raja karena dilantik dan dapat diganti oleh dewan tua-tua yang disebut “Potuosan”.

Dari nama-nama leluhur wanita Minahasa abad ke-7 seperti Riwuatan asal kata Riwu atau Hiwu artinya alat menenun, Poriwuan asal kata Riwu alat menenun, Raumbene asal kata Wene’ artinya padi, menunjukkan Minahasa abad ke-7 telah mengenal padi dan membuat kain tenun.

Perubahan Bali tak bisa lepas dari pariwisatanya. Bagaimanapun pulau dewata ini telah menarik perhatian turis Eropa sejak jaman kuda gigit besi. Ketika Kerajaan Klungkung jatuh dalam kolonialisme di tahun 1908, pemerintah Hindia Belanda justru mempromosikannya sebagai daerah tujuan wisata. Berbeda dengan Surabaya atau Batavia yang diposisikan sebagai daerah perdagangan.

Embrio pariwisata Bali telah tumbuh ketika Herr H. Van Koll mempublikasikan pulau ini. Meski Van Koll adalah anggota parlemen Belanda, namun pada 1902 ia justru mendatangi daerah calon jajahan Belanda seperti Sumatra, Jawa dan Bali secara pesiar. Walhasil, Van Koll menjadi turis pertama asing yang pernah menginjak pulau ini. Catatan perjalanan Van Koll kemudian dirangkum dalam buku Uit Onze Kolonien (Diluar Daerah Kolonial) dan diterbitkan di Leiden, Belanda pada 1902.

Bukunya memang tak secara khusus membahas Bali. Namun Uit Onze Kolonien tetap merupakan dokumentasi tulis pertama Bali di Benua Eropa yang menarik perhatian dunia barat. Seorang dokter Jerman, Gregor Krause kemudian secara khusus menuliskan dokumentasi pulau dewata ini. Dalam Bali di tahun 1920 ia menceritakan pengalaman berkunjung ke pulau seribu pura ini. Dilengkapi dengan dokumentasi foto, Krause bagai mendorong datangnya wisatawan Eropa kesini. Tanggapan atas dokumentasi Krause meningkat seiring pecahnya Perang Dunia pertama. Kericuhan perang membuat banyak orang Eropa ingin “melarikan diri” ke dunia baru.

Daftar Buku tentang Minahasa


Yranzo OFM, Pater Juan
Verslag over den voortgang de Missie in Manado 1635-1645
Manila, 4 Augustus 1645
Laporan tentang kemajuan Misi di Manado 1635-1645


Wigboldus, Jouke S.
A History of the Minahasa C. 1615-1680
Sejarah Minahasa 1615-1680


Pieter Bleeker
Reis door de Minahassa en den Molukschen archipel - 2 jilid.
Batavia, Lange, 1856
Perjalanan di Minahasa dan archipelago Maluku
Kata kunci: observasi pribadi, perjalanan, agraris, geografi fysik, anthropologi kultural dan sosial, maluku, indonesia


N.P. Wilken
Bijdragen tot de kennis van de zeden en gewoonten der Alfoeren in de Minahassa
MNZG 7, 1863
Sebuah presentasi tentang kebiasaan-kebiasaan pribumi Minahasa pada masa itu. Tulisan ini penuh dengan deskripsi etnografis sekitar berbagai pandangan dan tata-cara hidup, termasuk kehidupan keagamaan, khususnya di wilayah Tombulu, sampai pada cerita-cerita fabel dan uraian asal-usul dan arti sejumlah nama tempat (negerijen). Misalnya nama Tataaran berasal dari kata “tumaar” (beloven=berjanji) sampai menjadi “tataaran” (de plaats van belofte=tempat terjadi satu perjanjian). Alkisah pada zaman dulu orang Tondano dan orang Tombulu sepakat untuk menjadikan tempat ini (negerij) sebagai tempat transaksi atau baku-tukar barang (ruilhandel). Berdasarkan perjanjian ini maka tempat tersebut mendapat nama Tataaran.


N.P. Wilken
Bijdragen tot de kennis der Alfoersche taal in de Minahasa
Rotterdam: M. Wijt & Zonen, 1866
Memberi perhatian pada bahasa Tombulu. Setelah mencatat sejumlah cerita rakyat dan teka-teki dalam bahasa Tombulu, Wilken menguraikan dalam buku ini tata-bahasa Tombulu, termasuk mengenai bunyi, pembentukan kata, kata kerja dan seterusnya.


Padtbrugge, Robertus
Het Journaal van Padtbrugge's reis naar Noord Celebes 16 Augustus - 23 December 1677
Jurnal perjalanan Padtbrugge ke Sulawesi Utara 16 Augustus - 23 Desember 1677


L. Mangindaan
Oud Tondano
Tondano Lama


N. Graafland
De Minahasa. Haar verleden en tegenwoordige toestand - dua jilid
Rotterdam: M. Wijt & Zonen, 1867
Sebuah laporan perjalanan pribadi ke berbagai pelosok tanah Minahasa yang menyentuh berbagai aspek kehidupan pada masa Graafland sendiri sedang bekerja sebagai tenaga misionaris (zendeling) NZG (Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap) di sana.).


Sydney J. Hickson
A naturalist in north Celebes : a narrative of travels in Minahassa, the Sangir and Talaut islands, with notices of the fauna, flora and ethnology of the districts visited - 392 h.
London, Murray, 1889
Seorang naturalist di Sulawesi : cerita tentang perjalanan di Minahasa, kepulauan Sangir dan Talaud, dengan catatan ttg fauna, flora dan ethnologi wilayah yang di kungung
Kata kunci: observasi pribadi, transport maritime, fauna, flora, adat dan kebiasaan, sulawesi, indonesia


Wawuruntu, A L
De Oude Geschiedenis der Minahasa
Sejarah Lama Minahasa


Kol, Hubert van
Uit Onze Kolonien, een Schakelstuk
Dari Koloni Kami, salah satu Sambungan


J.A.T. Schwarz
Tontemboansche Teksten - 3 jilid
Leiden: Brill, 1907
Jilid pertama adalah kumpulan cerita-cerita rakyat yang dikumpulkan Schwarz dan semuanya dalam bahasa Tontemboan. Seluruhnya ada 141 cerita. Temanya bermacam-macam, mulai dari fabel, mitos kelahiran desa, kisah asal-usul nama, sampai pada legenda dan mitos tentang dewa-dewi serta doa-doa.
Jilid kedua merupakan terjemahan bahasa Belanda dari jilid pertama ditambah dengan interpretasi pribadi oleh Schwarz sendiri.
Jilid ketiga berisi catatan-catatan linguistik dan ethnografik terhadap naskah-naskah cerita itu.
J.A.T. Schwarz adalah salah satu misionaris NZG yang pernah bertugas di Sonder. Ayahnya, J.G. Schwarz, adalah misionaris pelopor yang lama bekerja di Langowan, yang tiba di Minahasa pada tahun 1831 bersama dengan J.F. Riedel, juga misionaris pelopor yang mengabdikan lebih dari 30 tahun hidupnya, bahkan hingga wafat, di Tondano.


J.A.T. Schwarz
Tontemboansch-Nederlandsch woordenboek met Nederlandsch-Tontemboansch register
Leiden: Brill, 1908
Kamus Bhs Tontemboan-Bhs Belanda dengan register Bhs Belanda-Bhs Tontemboan


J.E. Jasper
De Bantiks : een oude volksstam in de Minahassa - 22 h.
s.n., [S.l.], 1909
Bantik : suku tua di Minahasa
Kata kunci: mytos, adat dan kebiasaan, kelompok-kelompok etnik dan bangsa, sulawesi, indonesia


J.E. Jasper
Eenige onderwerpen, betrekking hebbende op de Minahassa - 10 p.
Kolff, Batavia, 1913
Beberapa perihal tentang Minahasa
Kata kunci: milik tanah, hak tanah, adat dan tradisi, sulawesi, indonesia


A.L. Wawo-Runtu
Rede uitgesproken op 18 december 1915 bij gelegenheid der algemeene vergadering der "Perserikatan Minahasa" - 8 h
[S.l., s.n.], 1915
Pidato disembahkan pada 18 December 1915 pada kesempatan pertemuan umum "Perserikatan Minahasa"
Kata kunci: biografi, pendidikan, belanda, indonesia


A.L. Wawo-Runtu
De Minahasa en het Minahasavolk 1679-1917 - 15 h
De Bussy, Amsterdam, 1918
Minahasa dan bangsa Minahasa 1679-1917
Kata kunci: kerja paksa, pajak, perkembangan, kolonialisasi, sulawesi, indonesia


S. Pangemanan cs.
Keradjinan Orang Minahasa
Batavia: Landsdrukkerij. 1919
Tentang Kerajinan Orang Minahasa.


J.W. Gunning
De protestantsche zending in de Minahasa
BKI 80, 1924
Missie Protestan di Minahasa


A.J. van Aernsbergen
Serie Uit en over de Minahasa - De Katholieke kerk en hare missie in de Minahasa
BKI 81, 1925
Seri Dari dan tentang Minahasa - Gereja Katolik dan missinya di Minahasa


N. Adriani
Serie Uit en over de Minahasa - De Minahasische talen
BKI 81, 1925
Seri Dari dan tentang Minahasa - Bahasa-bahasa Minahasa


Afdeeling landbouw, Departement van landbouw, nijverheid en handel
Perkeboenan kelapa boemi poetera ditanah Minahassa - 28 h.
Weltevreden, Landsdrukkerij, 1925
Kata kunci: pohon kelapa, perkebunan kecil, manasemen hasil bumi, sulawesi, indonesia


E.C. Godeè Molsbergen
Geschiedenis van de Minahassa tot 1829
Weltevreden: Landdrukkerij, 1928
Sejarah Minahasa sampai 1829.


Sam Weleij
Tontemboansch namen register enz. : winèrotan i ngaran e nimangäpo' in dior, karapi im paroro'on i iitoe - 100 h.
Liem Oei Tiong, Manado, 1928
Daftar nama Tontemboan dll..


Cornelis Tjepko Bertling
Grondbezit in de Minahasa - 18 h.
Kolff, Weltevreden, 1928
Memilik Tanah di Minahasa


C.T. Bertling
Echtscheiding cijfers der Christen-inlanders in de Minahasa - 190-233 h
Kolff, Weltevreden, 1929
Statistik Perceraian penduduk Kristen di Minahasa


Hersevien M Taulu
Bintang Minahasa (pingkan mogogoenoij) - 129 p
Balai poestaka, Batavia, 1931 - Seri Balai poestaka; 933


C.T. Bertling
De Minahasische Waruga en Hockerbestattung
NION vol XVI,1931
Waruga Minahasa dan Pemakaman Banku tak Bersandaran


G.S.S.J. Ratu Langie
De Kelakerangronden in de Minahassa - 18 h.
Persatoean Minahasa, Batavia, 1933
Kata kunci: pemerintahan lokal, administrasi umum, hukum adat, hukum-humum dan peraturan, sulawesi, indonesia


M.R. Dajoh
Pahlawan Minahasa - 103 h
Balai poestaka, Batavia, 1935


J.G.Ch. Sahelangi
Ringkasan Hikajat Tanah Bangsa Minahasa Purbakala
Makassar: Pertjetakan Makassar, 1950
Hikajat Bangsa Bentenan jang menduduki bahagian tenggara tanah Minahasa


H.M. Taulu
Adat dan Hukum Adat Minahasa
Tomohon, 1952


J.F. Malonda
Membuka tudung dinamika filsafat-purba Minahasa
Manado: Jajasan Badan Budaja Wongker-Werun, 1952


Hetty Palm
Ancient art of the Minahasa - 59 p
Publisher:Bandung, Masa-Baru, 1958
Kesenian purbakala Minahasa


F.S. Watuseke
Sejarah Minahasa
1961 / 1968
Buku ini secara singkat tapi padat mendaftarkan secara kronologis peristiwa-peristiwa yang terjadi di Minahasa mulai dari “zaman purba” sampai dengan tahun 1954, yaitu ketika Bitung dijadikan pelabuhan samudra. Yang sangat menarik dari buku ini – khususnya dalam edisi ke-2 yang terbit 1968 – adalah lampiran-lampirannya, yang di antaranya mendaftarkan perjalanan sejarah pembagian tanah Minahasa dalam walak-walak dan kemudian dalam distrik-distrik sejak kira-kira tahun 1679 sampai 1966.


E.V. Adam
Kesusasteraan, Kebudajaan dan Tjerita-tjerita Peninggalan Minahasa
Manado: Pertjetakan Negara, 1967
Buku kecil ini lebih merupakan kapita selecta mengenai kebiasaan-kebiasaan dan kepercayaan-kepercayaan tua serta aturan-aturan tata-krama di Minahasa tempo dulu. Ada juga pantun-pantun dan “keahlian” mendengarkan bahasa burung.


Kurt Tauchmann
Die Religion der Minahasa-Stämme (Nordost-Celebes/Sulawesi).
Agama bangsa Minahasa (Sulawesi Timur-Laut/Sulawesi)
Seorang peneliti Jerman, dipromosi doktor di Universitas Köln dengan disertasi ini. Barangkali inilah disertasi pertama tentang Minahasa yang ditulis dalam bahasa Jerman. Melalui studinya ini Kurt Tauchmann coba merekonstruksi agama dan kepercayaan asli suku-suku di Minahasa dari masa pra-pengaruh Eropa. Buku ini terdiri dari enam bab, masing-masing membahas kosmologi, kepercayanaan dan ajaran tentang dewa-dewa, gambaran dan konsepsi mengenai jiwa, kepemimpinan agama, perilaku keagamaan, dan terakhir mengenai sistem agama Minahasa. Studi ini sangatlah komprehensif dengan tetap menjaga kepelbagaian di antara suku-suku di Minahasa itu sendiri. Yang menarik, Tauchmann menyebut Minahasa sebagai “Mythenmuseum”. Di wilayah Indonesia bagian Timur, katanya, tidak ada daerah lain di mana ditemukan aneka ragam mitos yang bersaing seperti di Minahasa.


F.S. Watuseke
Oude gebruiken bij zwangerschap en geboorte in Tondano
BKI 126, 1970
Sesuai judulnya, tulisan ini berbicara tentang kebiasaan-kebiasaan tua di sekitar kehamilan dan kelahiran di Tondano, di mana dijelaskan, misalnya, apa artinya si maali-ali dan si matimea’ sampai pada nama dan jenis berbagai macam rempah-rempah yang diperlukan oleh seorang ibu untuk mandi setelah melahirkan (seperti Karimenga, Kajutumetow, Muntè pepontolen, dst.). Juga tidak ketinggalan di bagian akhir tulisannya adalah sebuah gambar tentang bagaimana tampaknya buaian bayi asli setempat.


F.S. Watuseke
Majalah Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlansch-Indië (yang biasa disingkat BKI)
KITLV di Negeri Belanda
Bahasa Belanda dan bahasa Inggris. Beberapa tulisannya diterbitkan di majalah ini


H. Kroeskamp
Early Schoolmasters in Developing Country: A history of experiments in school education in 19th century Indonesia
Assen: Van Gorcum & Comp. B.V., 1973
Dokumentasi dan analisis mengenai sekolah guru yang didirikan dan dikelola oleh Graafland. Graafland adalah pendiri sekolah guru di Minahasa, yang mula-mula didirikan di Sonder pada tahun 1851 dan yang tiga tahun kemudian dipindahkan ke Tanawangko. Tema pendidikan di Minahasa dan keberadaan sekolah guru, serta pengaruhnya terhadap masyarakat Minahasa. Di Tanawangko Graafland juga mulai menerbitkan surat kabar pertama Minahasa (berbahasa Melayu), “Tjahaja Siang”


L. Adam
Pemerintahan di Minahasa
Jakarta: Bhratara, 1975
Terjemahan dari BKI dengan kata pengantar oleh F.S. Watuseke


L. Adam
Adat Istiadat Sukubangsa Minahasa
Jakarta: Bhratara, 1976
Terjemahan dari BKI dengan kata pengantar oleh G.M.A. Inkiriwang.


Adrian Bernard Lapian
Holy warriors from the sea : (the raid on Manado of 1875) - 25 p
Leiden, Bureau Indonesische studiën, 1976 Prajurit Suci diri Laut (penyerangan Manado pada 1875)


C.I.J. Sluijk
Tekeningen op grafstenen uit de Minahasa
Gambar-gambar die waruga Minahasa


N.S. Kalangi
Orang Minahasa. Beberapa Aspek Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan
Peninjau 4, 1977.


Vincent O.L
Seri Mapalus. Koleksi Warisan Nenek Moyang
Jakarta: Yayasan Mapalus
Buletin dari tahun 1977


Maria J.C. Schouten
De veranderde positie van het Walakhoofd in de Minahasa gedurende de 19e eeuw : ukung, volkshoofd, ambtenaar - 114 h.
Amsterdam, Vrije universiteit, 1978
Perubahan posisi kepala Walak di Minahasa pada abad ke-19


Boéng Dotulong; Fransz-Rompis, Diana; Kaliey, Ruud; Lumenta, Nol
Minahasa - 44 h
[S.l., s.n.], 1980
Kata kunci: geografi wilayah, sulawesi, indonesia


Mieke Schouten
Minahasa and Bolaangmongondow: an annotated bibliography 1800-1942
The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1981
Minahasa dan Bolaangmongondow: kepustakaan dengan catatan 1800-1942
788 Entri tulisan mengenai Minahasa yang masih terdokumentasi dan naskahnya tersimpan di berbagai perpustakaan dan pusat arsip di Negeri Belanda


N.S. Kalangi
Kebudayaan Minahasa - Koentjaraningrat ed., Manusia dan Kebudayaan di Indonesia
Jakarta: Didjaskara, 1981


Willem H. Makaliwe
A preliminary note on genealogy and intermarriage in the Minahasa regency, North Sulawesi
BKI 137, 1981
Catatan semula tentang genealogi dan pernikahan campuran di wilayah Minahasa, Sulawesi Utara.


Wil Lundström-Burghoorn
Minahasa Civilization: A Tradition of Change
Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1981
Disertasi mengenai Minahasa yang dipertahankan di Göteborg, Swedia. Satu studi anthropologis mengenai kebiasaan-kebiasaan dan tradisi-tradisi yang dipraktekkan oleh masyarakat di Minahasa, termasuk kajian mengenai sistem kekerabatan dan rites de passage mulai dari kelahiran sampai kematian seseorang.


Watuseke, F. S.; Watuseke-Politton, W. B.
Het Minahasa- of Manado-Maleis. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 137, 324-346.
Bahasa Malayu-Minahasa atau Malayu-Manado. Contribution to de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 137, 324-346.


M.J.C. Schouten
De betovering van de kruidnagel in de Minahasa
Orion December: 16-18 Haia. - 1985
Keajaiban cengkeh di Minahasa


M.J.C. Schouten
Kruidnagel, brenger van een broze welvaart?
Mededelingen Vrienden Unsrat-Wenang 1/2: 9-11 Amsterdam. - 1985
Cengkeh, pembawa kekayaan ringkih?


Richard A.D. Siwu
Adat, Gospel and Pancasila: A Study of the Minahasan Culture and Christianity in the Frame of Modernization in Indonesian Society
Tesis D.Min, Lexington Theological Seminary, 1985
Adat, kitab injil dan Pancasila: Pelajaran Kebudayaan Minahasa dan keagamaan Kristen dalam rangka Modernisasi Masyarakat Indonesia.


A.E. Wahongan-K
Peranan Wanita dalam Pembangunan dan Kaitannya dengan Lembaga Mapalus
Tesis Master, Institut Pertanian Bogor, 1986


Bert Supit
Minahasa: Dari Amanat Watu Pinawetengan Sampai Gelora Minawanua
Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1986
(Catatan: Bert Supit penulis buku ini tidak identik dengan dokter Bert A. Supit di Tomohon. Bert Supit ini adalah bekas perwira TNI-AD dan termasuk salah seorang pemrakarsa berdirinya Perguruan Tinggi Manado, yang kemudian menjadi Universitas Sam Ratulangi, dan sekarang tinggal di Jakarta).
Buku karangan Bert Supit bisa dikategorikan sebagai buku kajian sejarah Minahasa. Salah satu acuan utama yang digunakan oleh Bert Supit adalah bukunya E.C. Godeè Molsbergen. Bahkan kutipan lengkap naskah-naskah perjanjian antara orang Belanda dan orang Minahasa pada tahun 1679, 1699 dan 1790 selengkapnya diambil dari buku tersebut. Tetapi itu tidak berarti Bert Supit tidak berlaku kritis terhadap buku tersebut. Melalui bukunya ini Bert Supit malah menunjukkan gejolak-gejolak perlawanan terhadap Belanda yang pernah terjadi dalam sejarah Minahasa, terutama dengan terjadinya Perang Tondano.


Ulrich Mai; Helmut Buchholt
Peasant pedlars and professional traders : subsistence trade in rural markets of Minahasa, Indonesia - 155 p
Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore, 1987
Tukang penjualan dan pedagang professional : dagang di pasar pedesaan Minahasa, Indonesia


Yoost Kullit
Minahasa: Masa Lalu dan Masa Kini
Jakarta: Lembaga Perpustakaan Dokumentasi & Informasi, 1987
Terjemahan De Minahasa. Haar verleden en tegenwoordige toestand


M.J.C. Schouten
Village administration in Minahasa
Amsterdam: Free University Pres 1987
Administrasi desa di Minahasa


M.J.C. Schouten
Koppensnellen in de Minahasa, in het verleden en in het heden
Manguni 1/2: 19-21 Enschede. 1987
Pemburuan kepala di Minahasa, masa lalu dan sekarang


M.J.C. Schouten
Myth and reality in Minahasan history: The Waworuntu-Gallois confrontation - Archipel; Etudes interdisciplinaires sur le monde insulindien 34: 119-141.
Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sciences Sociales 1987
Mitos dan realitas di sejarah Minahasa: Konfrontasi Waworuntu-Gallois


M.J.C. Schouten
Legitimasi sementara: pemerintahan desa di Minahasa
Jakarta: Gramedia. 1988


Philip Quarles van Ufford
Kepemimpinan lokal dan implementasi program. Pp. 79-108
Jakarta: Gramedia. 1988


M.J.C. Schouten
The Minahasans: eternal rivalry
Meppel: Edu Aktief 1988
Orang Minahasa: Persaingan abadi


Helmut Buchholt
Kirche, Kopra und Bürokraten: Gesellschaftliche Entwicklung und strategisches Handeln in Nord Sulawesi / Indonesien
Saabrücken: Verlag Breitenbach, 1990
Buchholt sendiri adalah orang Jerman. Buku ini aslinya adalah disertasi. Promosi doktornya di Universitas Bielefeld. Judulnya memang unik, karena mengkombinasikan gereja, kopra dan kaum birokrat. Mengikuti pendekatan sosiologi pembangunan dalam kerangka konsep strategische Gruppen, Buchholt meneliti peran sentral orang dan daerah Minahasa dalam membangun wilayah Sulawesi Utara, terutama sejak era politik kolonial Hindia-Belanda dengan proses transformasi ekonominya sampai pada era pemerintahan Orde Baru dengan birokratisasinya.


Richard Leirissa
PRRI/Permesta: Strategi Membangun Indonesia Tanpa Komunis
Jakarta: Grafitipres, 1990
Penulis adalah dekan Fakultas Sejarah UI. Di bagian introduksi buku yang dieditnya ini, Reimar Schefold antara lain menulis: “The various contributions give voice to a new interest in the culture of Minahasa, which after a long period of considerable silence has been gradually re-emerging in recent years.” Bagaikan hembusan angin segar mendengar lahirnya minat baru terhadap budaya Minahasa ini.


Laurens Hendrik Paat
Die theologisch-ökumenesischen Partnerschaftsgrundgedanken der Kirchen Indonesiens : am Beispiel der evangelischen Kirche in der Minahasa - 252 p
Frankfurt am Main [etc.], 1991 - Series: Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe 23: Theologie; 429
Dasar Pekerjaan Sama Theologis Oecumenis Gereja-gereja Indonesia; Gereja Evangelis di Minahasa
Kata kunci: gerakan oecumenis, theologis, gereja protestant, sulawesi, indonesia


Lucy R. Montolalu
Minahasa: Negeri, Rakyat dan Budayanya
Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 1991
Terjemahan De Minahasa. Haar verleden en tegenwoordige toestand


Helmut F. Weber
Wer fleißig ist, der kann es schaffen : vom Modernisierungsmythos in der ländlichen Minahasa, seinen Ursprüngen und Folgen - 270 h
Eberhard, München, 1993
Yang rajin, bisa berhasil : dari mythos Modernisasi di Minahasa, asal dan akhibatnya
Kata kunci: penelitian sosial, pembangunan regional, kondisi pedesaan, perubahan sosial, psychologi sosial, mobilitas sosial, sulawesi, indonesia


David E.F. Henley
Nationalism and regionalism in colonial Indonesia : the case of Minahasa - 91-112 p
Nasionalisme dan regionalisme di koloni Indonesia : kasus Minahasa
Kata kunci: regionalisme, nasionalisme, ethnopsychologi, kolonialisme, sulawesi, indonesia


K.A. Kapahang-Kaunang
Perempuan: Pemahaman Teologis tentang Perempuan dalam Konteks Budaya Minahasa
Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 1993
Semulanya adalah tesis M.Th. yang diselesaikan di UKIT Tomohon pada tahun 1989.


Mangundap, M A, Pastor Agus cs
125 Tahun Gereja Keuskupan Manado
Kata Kunci: Gereja


Louise Gandhi-Lapian
Harmonisasi Hukum tentang Sahnya Perkawinan Kristen dan Hubungannya dengan Harta Benda Perkawinan: Suatu Penelitian Lapangan di ‘Rondor’ Kawangkoan Minahasa
Disertasi Ph.D. Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, 1993
Penulis adalah dosen pada Fakultas Hukum UI yang pada tahun 1993 meraih gelar doktor.


Mieke Schouten
Minahasan Metamorphoses: Leadership and social mobility in a Southeast Asian society, c. 1680-1983
Disertasi Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 1993
Metamorfosa Minahasa: Kepemimpinan dan mobilitas sosial masyarakat Asia Tenggara, 1680-1983.
Mieke Schouten menfokuskan studi antropologis-historisnya pada perubahan kultural yang terjadi di Minahasa pada masa antara tahun 1680 dan 1983. Dengan menggunakan istilah “metamorfosa” pada judulnya, Schouten membuktikan bahwa di Minahasa, perubahan ekonomi, politik dan religius tetap diikuti oleh pola-pola dari masa lampau. Praktik-praktik kekristenan, misalnya, tetap tidak terlepas dari pola-pola ritual dan struktur agama primer. Selain itu, betapa pun struktur birokratis negara modern mewarnai konstelasi politik, pola kepemimpinan tradisional masih menguasai struktur desa.
Disertasi dari Mieke Schouten ini merupakan perpaduan menarik antara dokumentasi dan analisis. Buku setebal 340 halaman ini bahkan bisa menjadi dasar untuk banyak penelitian baru, misalnya mengenai konsep kekuasaan dalam budaya-budaya di Minahasa atau mengenai perempuan Minahasa. Dalam hal studi tentang Minahasa, Mieke Schouten memang bukan orang baru. Tesis MA-nya di Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, pada tahun 1978 sudah mengambil tema perubahan posisi kepala walak di Minahasa pada abad ke-19 (“De veranderende positie van het walak-hoofdt in de Minahasa gedurende de negentiende eeuw”). Sejak itu Mieke Schouten sebenarnya telah mulai memantapkan dirinya sebagai salah seorang nara sumber mengenai Minahasa, terutama lewat tulisan-tulisannya. Ia termasuk salah satu penulis asing yang sangat produktif menulis tentang Minahasa.


Menno Hekker
Minahassers in Indonesië en Nederland: migratie en cultuurverandering
Disertasi Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1993
Orang Minahasa di Indonesia dan Belanda: migrasi dan perubahan kebudayaan.
Dari judulnya saja sudah kelihatan arah penelitiannya adalah mengenai perubahan kultural pada kaum migran Minahasa di Negeri Belanda. Menno Hekker mengklasifikasi studinya sebagai ethnografi. Studinya sendiri merupakan studi kasus terhadap satu kaum migran tertentu. Berdasarkan pendekatan perubahan kebudayaan Menno Hekker lalu membuat perbandingan antara orang Minahasa yang telah menetap di Negeri Belanda dengan mereka yang menetap di tanah Minahasa. Perubahan kultural yang terjadi pada kaum migran Minahasa disebutnya sebagai satu proses “folklorisering”. Proses ini terjadi akibat perubahan konteks di mana kebudayaan Minahasa itu dihidupi. Artinya, konteks asli budaya Minahasa telah diganti oleh konteks kehidupan sosial masyarakat Belanda, yang berakibat pada menghilangnya sejumlah unsur budaya. Namun demikian ada sejumlah kebiasaan dan unsur kultural yang terus dipelihara seperti pengucapan syukur, kumpulan, kunci tahun baru, acara pohon terang, maengket, kabasaran dan mapalus. Mapalus umumnya hanya berlangsung sebagai prinsip resiprositas di antara warga Minahasa di Nederland.


David H. Tulaar, ed.,
Opoisme: Teologi Orang Minahasa
Tomohon: LETAK, 1993
Dokumentasi satu proses diskusi bertemakan “opoisme” yang berlangsung lewat korespondensi tulisan maupun lewat seminar sejak tahun 1990 sampai 1993.


David H. Tulaar, ed.
Merunding-rundingkan Kerja Selamat: Buku Penghormatan Hari Jadi ke-60 Prof. Dr. W.A. Roeroe
Tomohon: LETAK, 1993
Festschrift untuk Pdt. W.A. Roeroe dan mengangkat tema-tema seperti pembangunan pedesaan, perempuan, gereja dan teologi di Minahasa.


F.S. Watuseke; D.E.F. Henley
C.C. Predigers Verhandeling over het plaatselijk bestuur en de huishouding van de Minahasa in 1804 -357-385 h.
1994 - Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde" ; 150
Kata kunci: pelayanan sipil, adat dan tradisi, sumber-sumber dokumentasi, abad ke-19, sulawesi, indonesia


Helmut Buchholt dan Ulrich Mai, eds.
Continuity, Change and Aspirations: Social and Cultural Life in Minahasa, Indonesia
Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1994
Kelanjutan, Perubahan dan Aspirasi: Kehidupan Sosial dan Kultural di Minahasa, Indonesia
Memuat sebelas tulisan dari berbagai penulis, di luar bagian introduksi, yang sebenarnya mengisi tiga bagian buku ini.
Bagian pertama, mencakup tiga tulisan, menyentuh aspek-aspek sosial-historis dan kultural pembangunan di Minahasa.
Bagian kedua mengangkat secara khusus aspek politik lokal dan diferensiasi sosial. Lima tulisan mengisi bagian ini.
Bagian ketiga mengisi tiga tulisan yang berkaitan dengan aspek-aspek ideologis dan ekonomis dari pembangunan wilayah.
Sebagian besar isi buku ini merupakan tuangan hasil kajian oleh lima peneliti Jerman dari Universitas Bielefeld. Penting dicatat, sejak tahun 1980-an Universitas Bielefeld merupakan univeritas Jerman yang banyak memberi perhatian pada penelitian-penelitian di Minahasa.
Juga hubungannya dengan pusat penelitian UNSRAT Manado sangat erat. Kemudian ada satu kontribusi dari Mieke Schouten kalangan elit lama dan baru di Sonder. Dua tulisan lainnya berasal dari para peneliti di UNSRAT. Satu tulisan mengenai peranan perempuan Minahasa di pedesaan ditulis bersama oleh Wiesje Lalamentik, Alex Ulaen dan Justus Inkiriwang. Satu tulisan lagi mengenai pola-pola pemberdayaan dan peran tenaga kerja sektor non-pertanian di pedesaan Sulawesi Utara dikerjakan oleh Lucky Sondakh.


M.J.C. Schouten
Old and new élite in a village of Sonder
Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 1994
Elite lama dan baru di desa Sonder


R. Schefold
Minahasa past and present; tradition and transition in an outer island region of Indonesia, pp. 7-21
Leiden: Research School CNWS 1995
Minahasa masa lalu dan sekarang; tradisi dan transisi


M.J.C. Schouten
Wa'ilan and boss: Status seeking in Minahasa
Leiden: Research School CNWS 1995
Wa'ilan dan boss: Mencari status di Minahasa


David E.F. Henley
Nationalism and Regionalism in a Colonial Context: Minahasa in the Dutch East Indies
Leiden: KITLV, 1996
Dalam bentuknya yang belum direvisi, isi buku ini sudah diajukan oleh penulisnya sebagai disertasi Ph.D. pada Australian National University pada tahun 1992. David Henley sendiri berkebangsaan Inggris. Buku ini pada hakekatnya meneliti perkembangan nasionalisme regional yang bertumbuh di Minahasa pada zaman Hindia-Belanda hingga tahun 1942. Ia juga melakukan analisis yang dalam tentang pengertian “bangsa Minahasa”. Baik perdebatan politik dalam Minahasarad maupun sejarah kelahiran organisasi-organisasi politik orang Minahasa turut terdokumentasi dalam karya ini.


Yuniawati Umar
Korelasi Waruga dan Lumpang Batu. Suatu Studi Awal dan Studi Kasus di Minahasa. Seminar Prasejarah Indonesia I. Yogyakarta.
Dwi Yani, 1996


Gerry van Klinken / Gerungan Saul Samuel Jacob Ratu Langie
Richard Wagner and Minahasa's past - 187-193 p
1998 - Kabar seberang - Yayasan Soekarno monograph series; 28/29 2
Daya tarik tetap : tulisan tentan Indonesia dan Selatan Barat Pacific untuk menghormat Bob Hering / ed. oleh Harry A. Poeze dan Antoinette Liem
Kata kunci: biografi, literatur indonesian, abad ke-20, sulawesi, indonesia


Herman Carel Waworuntu dan (1)Tolang Sara Rengkoeng, (2)Maria Tenden dan (3)Tewik
Silsilah Keturunan
Pinaesaan Ne Keluarga Besar Waworuntu, Jakarta 2001
Silsilah Keturunan Waworuntu, Rengkoeng, Tenden, Tewik. Silsilah Keturunan ini mempunayi lebih dari 2200 personalia.


M.J.C. Schouten
Manifold connections: the Minahasa region in Indonesia
South East Asia Research - London 2004
Hubungan beraneka: Daerah Minahasa di Indonesia


S. Pangemanan cs.
North Sulawesi Textiles and the revival of the Bentenan Cloth (article)
Wastraprema, the Indonesian Traditional Textile Society, Jakarta - December 2004 (direncanakan)
Tentang Tenunan Traditional di Sulawesi Utara


Jan F. Menayang
Kamus: Melayu Manado - Indonesia / Indonesia - Melayu Manado
IPCOS Jakarta, Dec. 2004 (direncanakan)
Kata Kunci: Kamus


Muskens, Dr M.P.M.
Sejarah Gereja Katolik Indonesia I: Misi di Sulawesi-Utara
Kata Kunci: Gereja


I.W. Palit
Sejarah Manusia Pertama di Minahasa
Buku kecil stensilan tanpa tahun
Pada Sidang Raya IX Dewan Gereja-gereja di Indonesia (DGI) di Tomohon pada tahun 1980 buku stensilan ini diedarkan kepada para peserta sidang.

Sumber: David H. Tulaar / e-mail:

David H. Tulaar
Sumber: Royal Tropical Institute - Information & Library Services
Sumber: Judul didapat di literatur lain
Sumber: Judul diserahkan oleh tamu situs web ini.

Perhatian: Jika anda mempunyai judul buku yang berkepentingan, yang belum dikutip disini dan yang ada keterkaitan dengan Minahasa, mohon memberi tahu kepada

Terima Kasih.

2 komentar:

Vic de Jesus mengatakan...

"First mass" in the Philippines

Magellan did not go to Limasawa, as popularly believed. Or Butuan, which used to be universally believed from 1534 up until 1800.

The place where Magellan’s fleet anchored and where an Easter mass was celebrated on March 31, 1521 was not Butuan. Or, Limasawa.

It was in the island-port named Mazaua. Being an island, it was surrounded by sea water.

There is an article at Wikipedia on Mazaua where all the properties of Mazaua–its location, size, kind of port, shape, the name of its king, its flora and fauna, distances from Homonhon to the port, latitude, etc. etc.–are explicitly defined. Click

A fairly comprehensive but not exhaustive historiography of the Mazaua issue is contained in an article published in the website of the Italian nuclear scientist and Italian translator of Dr. Jose Rizal, Dr. Vasco Caini, at When the page opens scroll down to the article Mazaua.

The notion the March 31, 1521 mass was held at Butuan comes from the garbled account by Giovanni Battista Ramusio. It is such a corrupted translation of the original that the account is not Antonio Pigafetta’s at all. In this translation, which Henry Harrisse says is a plagiarism by Ramusio of an anonymously published book that saw print in 1534 (no one has seen this edition) and republished in 1536 (which is extant), Ramusio removed “Mazaua” and replaced it with Butuan.

The Butuan error stayed uncorrected for 266 years from 1534 or 1536 until 1800. The error was detected in a book containing the authentic Pigafetta narration of the Magellan voyage, edited by the ex-Augustinian polymath Carlo Amoretti.

But in correcting the error, Amoretti made a colossal blunder which was only detected in 1996 by the author. Amoretti in two footnotes surmised that Mazaua (his exact names for the island was Massana and Mazzana) MAY be the “Limassava” island in the 1734 map of the Philippines by French mapmaker Jacques N. Bellin. This map was an exact copy of the most famous map ever made in the Philippines by Fr. Pedro Murillo Velarde, the edition of 1734.

Amoretti, by way of offering proof to support his assertion, states Limasawa and Mazaua are in the latitude given by Pigafett, 9 degrees and 40 minutes North. This is wrong on three points: 1) Limasawa’s latitude is 9 deg. 56 min. N; 2) There is no island at Pigafetta’s latitude; 3) There are two other readings of latitude for Mazaua, 9 degrees North by The Genoese Pilot which is supported by the Portuguese squadron leader, Antonio de Brito, who embargoed all objects found at the flagship Trinidad including a number of logbooks and other papers, and 9 deg. 20 min. North by Francisco Albo, the Greek mariner who piloted the Victoria back to Spain on Sept. 6, 1522.

The notion Combes’ Limasawa was Magellan’s Mazaua where the “first mass” was held is a false notion. Combes nowhere says his Limasawa is the port where the fleet moored on March 28-April 3, 1521. Nowhere does Combes say there was any mass held in his Limasawa or anywhere in the Philippines for that matter on March 31, 1521. To verify this, go to the English translation of the 3-paragraph story by Combes of Magellan’s sojourn in Philippine waters. Click,M1. The original Spanish text may be accessed at;cc=philamer;q1=Limasaua;rgn=full%20text;idno=ahz9273.0001.001;didno=ahz9273.0001.001;view=image;seq=00000134

Where then is Magellan’s port today? The answer may be found at the ff. Wikipedia articles:

1. First mass in the Philippines –

2. Carlo Amoretti —

3. Gines de Mafra —

4. Mazaua —

5. Francisco Combes —

6. Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas —

7. Andres de San Martin —

8. Ruy Lopez de Villalobos —

No serious scholar of Magellan historiography today still thinks Limasawa is Mazaua. Only the National Historical Institute and fanatic advocates (not scholars) of Amoretti’s Limasawa hypothesis still think the southern isle is or can be Mazaua.

Ironically, some writers from Butuan think in the same way as NHI itself. For what unexplained reason, it’s not clear.

The only remaining problem is whether the suspect isle of Pinamanculan-Bancasi is really Mazaua. This issue is not historiographical. It is archaeological, i.e., there is need to come up with artefacts directly traceable to Magellan, Gines de Mafra, and a number of other recorded visits by Europeans in the 16th century.

These artefacts cannot be produced by further historiographical conversation. It is only by digging that concrete evidence may be found.


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